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Biology 7-2 Cell Structures, Important Facts


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Do animal cells contain cell walls?
Name three organisms that contain cell walls.
Plants, algae and fungi.
Do prokaryotes contain cell walls?
The main function of cell walls:
To provide support and protection for the cell.
What are most cells made from?
Fibers of carbohydrate and protein.
Plant cells are made mostly of:
Cellulose, a tough carbohydrate fiber.
What is the main component of wood and paper?
Do plant cells or animal cells contain a nucleus?
Both do.
What is the abbreviation for Deoxyribonucleic acid?
The _________ contains nearly all of the cell's DNA.
What is DNA?
Substance that holds the CODED INSTRUCTIONS for making proteins and other important molecules.
What is one of the main functions of cells?
Making proteins.
What do chromatin consist of?
DNA bound to protein
Most of the time, ___________ is spread throught the nucleus.
When do chromatins become chromosomes?
When a cell divides, they condense to form a chromosome.
Who identified the nucleus?
Robert Brown, 1831
Plant and animal cells contain a ___________.
What contains nearly all of the cell's DNA?
the nucleus
Why is the nucleus so very important to a cell?
Because making proteins is one of the main functions of cells.
What does the chromatin consist
DNA bound to protein.
How does a chromatin form into a chromosome?
by cell division the chromatin condenses to form chromosomes.
What kind of information do chromosomes hold?
genetic information.
What is the small, dense region of the nucleus?
the nucleolus.
Ribosomes aid in the ______________ __ ____________ within the cell.
production of proteins
What has thousands of nuclear pores?
nuclear envelope
What is the nuclear envelopes function?
To send a steady stream of RNA and other information carrying molecules to the rest of the cells through its pores.
What structure helps support some cells?
The cytoskeleton.
What structures are cytoskeletons make of?
Microtubules and microfilaments.
What structure helps maintain cell shape?
How are microtubules important in cell division?
They help to separate chromosomes.
What has "tracks" along which organelles are moved?
The cytoskeleton also includes M________________
What produces a tough, flexible framework that supports the cell?
What are 2 important structures that make up the cytoskeleton?
microfilmaent and microtubule.
What is another function of the cytoskeleton? Hint: something about moving.
Moving organelles with the cell.
What does organelles mean?
"Little organs".
Where are the cells proteins assembled?
On ribosomes.
What is the abbreviation for Ribonucleic acid?
How do ribosomes produce proteins?
By following coded instructions that come from the nucleus.
What is RNA
Ribonucleic acid
What is a Eukaryotic cells internal membrane system called?
Endoplasmic reticulum.
What is the purpose of the Endoplasmic Reticulum?
It is the organelle where components of the cell membrane are assembled and some proteins are modified.
What are the 2 types of endoplasmic reticulum?
1. Rough Endoplasmic reticulum
2. Smooth Endoplasmic reticulum
What is the difference between the Rough Endoplasmic reticulum and the Smooth Endoplasmic reticulum?
The rough one has ribosomes on its surface
The smooth endoplasmic reticulum contains ____________ that perform tasks like the _____________ (making of) of ____________.
synthesis of lipids.
The rough endoplasmic reticulum does what?
Chemically Modifies proteins
and involved in the synthesis of proteins.
After the rough endoplasmic reticulum make and modify proteins they move this proteins into a stack called the:
Golgi apparatus
What does this stack of Golgi apparatus do with the protein?
They attach carbohydrates and lipids to the protein.
A small organelle filled with enzymes:
What is the function of the lysomes?
To break down lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins from food into particles that can be used by the rest of the cell.
What other vital function is done by lysosomes to help the cell?
removes debris that accumulates and clutters up the cell.
Where is water, salts, proteins and carbohydrates stored in cells?
Vacuoles, saclike structures.
Are vacuoles found in plants or animals?
Name 2 functions of vacuoles:
1. To store materials in cells like water, salts, proteins and carbohydrates.
2. Help support heavy structures such as leaves and flowers.
What is a vesicle?
A smaller type of vacuoles.
What does the vesicle do?
transports stubstances within the cell.
How do vacuoles help to support a plant?
The plant cells have one single large, central vacuaole filled with liuid and the pressure from this saclike vacuole causes pressure that helps the plants leaves and flowers stand up (support).
How can Andrew do well at HMSA?
Become very, very organized and stick to a strict, organized schedule.
What are some ways for Andrew to get organized?
1. Keep all paperwork categorized by subject in folders.
2. Save all typed homework in categorized folders by subject in computer.
3. Make flashcards of ALL Vocabulary assignments.
4. Make flashcards of importants facts the day you are assigned a chapter or section.

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