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7th Grade Life Science Final

Terms

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Archaebacteria  

Group that includes ancient bacteria.

Prokaryotic - Lack a nucleus  

When yeast releases energy from sugar without the use of oxygen.
Fermentation
The one variable that is changed to test a hypothesis.
Manipulated variable
The testing group in which all the variables except one remain the same.
Experimental group
 Different forms of a gene.
Allele
Interphase
The phase that the cell spends most of its time.
How many pairs in the human chromosome?
23
The group that does not receive special treatment which is used to compare results with the experimental groups.
Control group.

 A suggested solution to a problem.    

Hypothesis
The theory that living things come from other living things.
Biogenesis
Organisms have these 8 characteristics:
  1. Made up of cells
  2. Use energy
  3. Move
  4. Respond
  5. Adjust
  6. Reproduce
  7. Grow and develop
  8. Adapt to their environment
Organisms with many cells are organized into
  1. Tissues
  2. Organs
  3. Organ systems that keep the organism live.
Organic compounds contain ?
Carbon
What does the cell membrane control?
What molecules can and cannot pass through it.
When water diffuses through a selectively permeable membrane it's called?
Osmosis
Producers
Make food through photosynthesis which consumers eat.
What do oxygen-deprived cells do?
Carry out fermentation to release small amounts of energy from glucose without using oxygen.
The four stages of mitosis?
  1. Prophase
  2. Metaphase
  3. Anaphase
  4. Telephase
Which phase do cels spend most of their time?
Interphase
What is DNA made up of?
Nitrogen bases that direct all the cell's activities.
Where are chromosomes found?
The cell's nucleus.
DNA makes up the genes found on the ?
chromosomes
How many of each kind of chromosomes does each body cell normally have?
2
Gametes
Sex cells
Sex cells only have how many of each kind of chromosome?
One
Tool use in genetics to predict the probability of offspring.
Punnett square
What do the letters represent in the Punnett square?
Different Alleles

True or False

Heredity features of a species may change over time. 

True
Evidence of life from the past.
Fossils
Organisms are classified in how many different levels?
7
What is the largest, most diverse level of organisms?
Kingdom
How many kingdoms of living things are there?
6
Organism that is a multi-cellular eukaryote that adapted to life on land with structures such as roots, waxy cuticles, guard cells and stomata.
Plants
The factor that changes BECAUSE of the manipulated variable.
Dependent variable (responding variable).
Eubacteria  

Unicellular prokaryotic

True Bacteria 

Protists 

Unicellular

Eukaryoitc

 Either plant-like, animal-like or fungus-like.

 

Fungi

Saprophutes  ( parasites)

Reproduced by spores

Boy is a mass of thread-like tubes called hyphae 

 

What is the function of roots?
to absorb water
What is the function of stomata? 
To conserve water and reduce transpiration.
What is the function of stems?
To provide support for leaves.
What is the function of leaves?
To make food by photosynthesis.
What is respiration?
Release of energy from food.
What do xylem and phloem tissue do?

Move materials from one part of the plant to another.
What is a multicelllular eukaryote that must find and digest their food?
Animals

True or False

Most animals are vertebrates. 

False
Examples of simple invertebrates

planarian

free-living flatworm

cnidarians like the jellyfish 

What are multi-cellular eukaryotes that adapted to life on land with structures such as roots, waxy cuticles, guard cells and stomata?
Plants
What is the function of stomata?
to conserve water and reduce transpiration.
What is the function of xylem and phloem tissue?
To move materials from one part of the plant to another.
What are multicellular eukaryotes that must find and digest their food?
Animals

True or False

 

Most animals are vertebrates. 

False
Examples of simple invertebrates  

Planarian

Free-living flatworm

Cnidarians - jellyfish 

Complex invertebrate examples

Arthropods - animals with hard outer covering

Exoskeletons - go through metamorphosis

 

Nymph
Little adult - organism that has not finished metamorphosis
No larva or pupa stages means ...
Incomplete metamorphosis
When an animal changes drastically before reaching adult stage in metamorphosis it's called ...
Complete metamorphosis
The study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment.
Ecology
What does the biosphere consist of?
Biotic and abiotic factors
Matter is recycled in the ?
biosphere
Energy is passed along the food chain from ? to ? until it is used up.
From producers to consumers.
What are the four types of relationships among populations in a community?
  1. Parasitism
  2. Predator-prey
  3. Mutualism
  4. Commensalism
What 3 comparisons are made when studying ecology?
  1. Relationships among populations
  2. Habitat
  3. Niche
Large geographic regions with a distinct climate that influences what type of plants and animals live there.
Biome
What determines climate?

Temperature

Precipitation 

What are the six major land biomes?
  1. Tundra
  2. Tiaga
  3. Temperate Deciduous Forests
  4. Tropical Forests
  5. Grassland
  6. Desert
The gradual change from one community to another such as a field becoming a forest.
Succession
Natural Resources
Parts of the environment used by organisms for survival.
Examples of how to conserve natural resources
  1. Reuse of items
  2. Recycling of items into different products
  3. Reduce use of energy
  4. Use alternative energy sources (hydroelectric power)
A well-tested idea that explains a wide range of observations in science.
Theory
Hypothesis
A suggested solution to a scientific problem.
The theory that living things come from non-living matter.
Spontaneous Generation
Producer
An organism that can make its own food.
Organism that cannot make its own food.
Consumer
What breaks down organic material and recycles it back into the environment?
Decomposers
Tissues
Made up of groups of cells.
Similar tissues make up ?
Organs
Organ systems
Made up of similar organs.
Level of organization

Cells

Tissues

Organs

Organ systems 

Characteristics of living things
  1. Composed of cells
  2. Uses energy
  3. Needs water
  4. Reproduces
  5. Doesn't live forever
The movement of water from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration and does not require energy.
Osmosis
Coming to a conclusion based on observation.
Inference
When yeast releases energy from sugar without use of oxygen is called?
Fermentation
Organic Compound
A compound which contains carbon.
An example of an organic compound.
Sugar
Observation
What you see, hear smell or taste with your senses.
Respiration
Process where cells use oxygen to break down sugar for energy.
Petrified wood is a ?
fossil
In a Punnett Square, what are the letters used to represent?
Alleles
In a Punnett Square, what are the capital letters used to represent?
Dominant alleles
Basic unit of inheritance.
Gene
Chromosones are composed of ?
DNA
Change in species over time.
Evolution
Waxy layer on the outer covering of the leaves.
Cuticle
Stomata
Openings on the underside of the leaf that allows water to exit while letting in carbon dioxide.
Guard cells
control the opening and closing of the
Organs in a plant that are responsible for anchoring, absorbing water and storing food.
roots
Photosynthesis
Process that uses sunlight, water and carbon dioxide to make sugar and oxygen.
What part of the plant makes food using photosynthesis?
Leaves
Green pigment that most plants use to absorb sunlight.
Chlorophyll
Xylem
Vascular tissue that carries water and minerals in a plant.
What carries food throughout the plant?
Phloem
Animals with a backbone.
Vertebrate
Animals without a backbone.
Invertebrate
External covering on all arthropods.
Exoskeleton
Complete metamorphosis stages:
  1. Egg
  2. Larva
  3. Pupa
  4. Adult
Incomplete metamorphosis stages:
  1. Egg
  2. Nymph
  3. Adult
What two factors make up an ecosystem?
Biotic and Abiotic factors
Fungi is what kind of a factor?
Biotic
Water is what kind of a factor?
Abiotic

True or False

Abiotic factors are non-living. 

True
What is an example of the first link in the food chain?
Plants
Evaporation
when water goes from liquid to gas
When rain, snow, sleet or hail falls to the earth.
Precipitation
The two processes that make up the water cycle.
Evaporation and Precipitation
Population
Organisms that are part of one area.
Flagellates that live in the gut of a termite is an example of?
Mutualism - both organisms benefit.

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