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Anatomy and Physiology Marieb Test 3


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List the cells of skeletal muscle from largest to smallest
Muscle, motor unit, muscle fiber, myofibrils, sarcomere, myofilaments
Parallel, Pennate, Circular, and Convergent-tringular are examples of?
Muscle arrangements
This arrangement has a long axis that is parallel like a strap and an example is sartorius
Parallel arrangement
This arrangement is like a feather, oblique and an example is Extensor digitorum longus and deltoid
Pennate arrangement
This arrangement is in rings and an example is orbicularis oris and sphincters
Circular arrangement
This arrangement is triangular and fan shaped and an example pectoralis major
Convergent arrangement
This arrangement is spindle shaped and an example is biceps brachii
Occurs in a "power lever" where the effort is farther than the load from the fulcrum
Mechanical advantage
Occurs in a "speed lever" where the effort is nearer to the load than the fulcrum
Mechanical disadvantage
This is a suprahyoid muscle that has two bellies and forms a "V"
This is a infrahyoid muscle, three pairs which run circularly in pharynx wall (to swallow)
Pharyngeal constrictors
The diaphragm is supplied by the ________
Phrenic nerve
Pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, and the deltoid muscle are all?
Prime movers of the arm
The anterior forearm have muscles with long tendons which are anchored into place by?
flexor retinacula
The deepest and lowest posterior muscle of the thigh is?
Quadratus femoris
3 types of muscle tissue
Skeletal, Cardiac, and Smooth
This connective tissue sheath surrounds the whole muscle
The epimysium extends beyond the muscle as a tendon or a flat sheet called the?
Multinucleated cells formed by the fusion of embryonic cells
Glycosomes, myoglobin, myofibrils, sarcoplasmic reticulum and T-tubles are all specialized organelles contained in the?
This is a red pigment that stores extra oxygen in muscle tissue?
A section of a myofibril between two successive Z-discs is a
This is the smallest contractile unit of a muscle fiber
This is a series of repeating bands along the length of the myofibril
These striations are dark and have a light midsection called the H-zone
"A" bands
These striations are light with a darker midsection called the Z-disc or Z-line
"I" bands
The functional units of a muscle are the?
This fiber is made of the protein called "Nebulin", it anchors the thin filaments and connects each myofibril to the next one
Z-Disc or Z-Line
The H-zone is lighter because it lacks?
Thin filaments
The bisection of each H-Zone is called the?
Each thick filament is surrounded by how many thin filaments?
Thick Filaments are made of the protein?
Actin, Troponin, and tropomyosin are all contained in?
Thin Filaments
The elaborate smooth endoplasmic reticulum of muscle cells is called the?
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
Large perpendicular cross channels of sarcoplasmic reticulum is
Terminal Cisternae
These are formed at each A band I band juction where the sarcolemma penetrates into the cell interior to form an elongated tube
T Tubules
Each of these form a triad with two terminal cisterna of the sarcoplasmic reticulum
The activation of myosin cross bridges
When the tension generated by the cross bridges on thin filaments exceeds the opposing forces
The cross bridges become inactive and tension declines
Electrical current that stimulated by nerve ending and propagates along the sarcolemma
Action Potential
Muscles neurotransmitters
Acetylcholine (ACh)
6 steps for process of a contraction
1 thin filaments slide centrally 2 Z-discs are pulled toward thick filaments 3 distance between Z-discs is reduced 4 I bands shorten 5 H-zones disappear 6. The A-bands move closer together but do not get shorter
The axons contain small sacs called the ?
Synaptic vesicles or synaptic knobs which contain the ACh
Increased Ca+ causes synaptic vesicles to realase Ach into the synaptic clft by way of
Acetylcholinesterase or Cholinesterase does what?
Prevents continued muscle contractions
This is the method where the Action potiontial causes sliding of the filaments
Excitation-Contraction Coupling (E-C Coupling)
E-C coupling occurs during the?
latent period
4 steps of Contraction
1Cross Bridge formation 2 Working (power) stroke 3 cross bridge detachment 4 cocking of the myosin head
Cross bridge detachment is caused by the
bringing of ATP to the myosin head
The force exerted by a contracting muscle on an object is called
Muscle Tension
The opposing force exerted on the muscle by the weight of an object being moved is called the
If muscle tension develops but the load is not moved the contraciton is called
Increasing muscle tension is measured in ?
Isometric contractions
This occurs when the muscle tension developed overcomes the load and muscle shortening occurs
Isotonic contraction
The "amount of shortening" is measured in
isotonic contractions
The nerve-muscle functional unit is called the?
Motor Unit
What is the all or nothing phenonom?
When a motor neuron fires, all the muscle fibers it supplies contract
Three phases of muscle twitch are?
Latent Period, Period of Contraction, and Relaxation period
The way a healthy muscle responds with smooth motion is called a?
Graded muscle response
Graded response can occur in two ways
Changing the Frequency of stimulation or Changing the strength of the stimulus
Changing the Frequency of the stimulation is called?
wave summation effect
Changing the Strength of the stimulus is called?
multiple motor unit summation
In "wave summation" the second contraction occurs before the first is completely
In wave summation muscle tension during the second contraction causes more_____ than the first
Summation can progress to incomplete (unfused) or
Complete (fused) tetanus ( a sustained contraction)
The first observable contraction occurs below threshold voltage no muscle contraction occurs at all
Threshold stimulus
When a muscle contracts, ATP provides the energy for cross bridge movement and detachment and for the operation of the ?
Calcium pump
3 pathways to regenerate ATP are
1 Interaction of ADP with Creatime Phosphate (Direct Phosphorylation) 2 Stored glycogen via glycolysis (anaerobic) 2 aerobic respiration (oxidative phosphorylation)
This is a unique, high energy molecule stored in muscles and supplies energy for synthesis of ATP
Creatine Phosphate
The force of muscle contraction is determined by?
# of fibers stimulated, size of fibers stimulated, frequency of stimulation, and degree of muscle stretch
Calcium is stored ?
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
The presence of calcium inside the axon terminal causes some of the synaptic vesicles to fuse wiht the axonal membrane and release ACH into the synaptic cleft by
Cross birdge attachment to actin requires
The organ muscle is covered externally by the?
This is a discrete bundle of muscle fibers
The Fascicle is covered by
The muscle fiber is surrounded by
The movable bone site where muscle is attached
The unmovable bone site where muscle is attached
Anything smaller than a muscle cell is an?
Sarcomeres are made of?
A muscle used to imobilize a joint or bone
Fixator muscle
When 2 muscles work together

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