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Physio Psych Chapter 5


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At what age does the CNS begin to develop in the embryo?
2 weeks.
What CNS structures begin to form in the 2 week embryo?
A neural tube forms around a fluid-filled cavity. This structure then sinks under the skin and develops into the 3 brain parts - mid-, hind-, and fore-brain.
What does the brain weigh at birth?
350 grams
What does the brain weigh at age one?
1000 grams
What does the brain weigh as an adult?
1200-1400 grams
At what age does the hippocampus fully develop?
Age 3.
What are the five steps of neuron development?
1. Proliferation.

2. Migration.

3. Differentiation.

4. Myelination.

5. Synaptogenesis.
What happens during proliferation?
Cells replicate. This is not always good - they produce protocells as well. This is where cells decide whether to become neurons or glia.
What happens during migration?
Most cells form near the ventricles, then move to their appropriate locations.
What happens during differentation?
The axon forms, then the dendrite.
What happens during myelination?
Myelin forms in the spine, and then in the brain.
What happens during synaptogenesis?
Synapses form. This is the last thing to develop.
When does the immune system begin to develop in fetuses?
Once the limbs form.
What are the two main environmental problems for developing babies?
1. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

2. Cigarette smoking.
What are the symptoms of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome?
Hyperactivity, facial abnormalities, retardation, heart defects.
What are the symptoms of Cigarette smoking?
Low birth weight, early illnesses. SIDS, Long-term intellectual deficits, ADHD, and impairment of the immune system.
How plastic is the brain after damage?
It depends on how the damage occurred.
What is a closed head injury?
Rotational force that slams the tissue against the inside of the skull. This is the most common source of head injury in the young, like shaken baby syndrome.

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