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Emergency Medical Assistance


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Assessment Principles
*Make sure location is safe for you and patient
*Conduct Primary survey
*Airway(Ensure open airway)
*Breathing (maintain airway, rescue breathing)
*Circulation (bleeding)
Controlling Bleeding
*Cover wound with dressing and apply direct pressure
*Elevate injured limb above heart
*Apply bandage and additional dressing, as necessary
*Use arterial pressure if direct pressure fails to stop bleeding
*Get medical help
Treating Burns
*Stop the burning
*Cool the burn - use large amounts of cool water
*Cover the burn - dry, sterile dressings or clean cloth
*Get medical help
Treating Shock
*Have victim lie down
*Control breathing
*Elevate legs (unless head, neck , spinal injuries, hop or leg injuries are suspected)
*Reassure victim
*Do not give food or drink
*Get medical help
Treating broken bones and severe sprains
*Determine the type and location of injury
*Inability to move affected part normally
*Protruding bone
*Victim feels bone grating or heard a snap or pop at time of injury
*Cold feeling or numbness at site of injury
*Immobilize affected part
*Splint, if necessary
*Get medical help
Chemical Poisoning by Contact
Flush with water
Chemical Poisoning by Ingestion
*Identify the poison
*Check breathing, pulse, and level of consciousness
*Contact Poison Control Center - do not give anything to eat or drink unless instructe to by medical personnel
*Get medical help
Snake Bite - Poisoning by Injection
*Wash wound
*Keep the bitten part still, and keep it lower than the victim's heart
*Get Medical Help
Heat-Related Illness
*Get victim out of heat
*Loosen tight clothing
*Remove perspiration-soaked clothing
*Apply cool, wet cloths to the skin
*Cool the victim
*If the victim is conscious, ive them water to drink
*Get medical help if victim is vomiting, unable to drink, or loses consciousness
Cold Related Illness
*Care for life threatening problems
*Move victim to a warm place
*Remove wet clothing and dry victim
*Warm victim slowly
*Get medical help
Chemical Poisoning y Contact
Flush with water
*Place thumb side of fist agains middle of abdomen, just above naval
*Grasp fist with other hand
*Give quick, upward thrusts
(Note: Give chest thrusts for pregnant victim not abdominal thrusts)
Rescue Breathing
*Tilt head back and lift chin
*Pinch nose shut
*Give two slow breaths, checking to see if chest gently rises.
*Use abdominal thrust (up to 5 times) to clear airway, if obstructed, and sweep out mouth
*Check for pulse
*Give one slow breath every 5 seconds for one 1 minute (ie. 12 breaths)
Diabetic Coma
*Transport the victim to a medical facility immediately
Insulin Shock

Conscious Patient
Administer sugar, granular sugar, honey, lifesavers o other candy placed under the tongue, or orange juice
Insulin Shock

Unconscious Patient
*Avoid giving liquids
*Provide a sprinkle of sugar under tongue
*Turn head to side or place on side
*Transport to medical facility
*Maintain an open airway
*Keep patient at rest
*Protect all paralyzed aprts
*Provide emotional support
*Head, neck, and shoulders slightly elevated. Turn head slightly to side for drainage
*Do not allow patient to become overheated
*Do not administer anything by mouth
*Monitor patient - shock or respiratory or cardiac arrest are possible
*Get medical help
*Place patient on floor or ground
*Loosen restrictive clothing
*Do not try to hold patient during convulsions
*Protect the patient from injury
*After convulsions have passed, keep patient at rest
*Position head for drainage in case of vomiting
*Protect the patient from embarrassment
*If this is patient's first attack, alert EMS
**if patient is aware of problem, ask if you can call doctor for him
**the patient has the right to refuse further care
*Clear The Airway
*Breathe For Victim
*Maintain circulation by chest compression
Emergency Aid Procedures For Childbirth
*First responders job is to assist the mother in the delivery of ther baby
*Support the baby's head (do not pull on the baby)
*Assist in birth of the upper shoulder
*Support the body and feet
*Clear the Airway
*If baby is not breathing, encourage to breathe. CPR may be necessary
*Get medical help
Types of communicable diseases generally encountered by first responders
*Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)
*Viral Diseases
*Other Communicable Diseases
Universal Procedures
*Washing after exposure
*Changing clothing after exposure
*Testing after exposure
*Treat all persons as if infected
Ground Transportation
*Protective Equip: Straps, head position, etc.
*Other related topics
Water Transportation
*Protective Equipment
*How to approach a boat
*Boating hazards
*Other related topics
Air transportation
*Protective Equipment
*Other Related Topics

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