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all subjects - EPPP


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which brain region is associated with:
1) OCD
2) "satisfaction center"
3) left-right confusion
4) circadian rhythm
1) caudate nucleus
2) cingulate gyrus
3) parietal lobe
4) superchiasmatic nucleus (SCN) found in the hypothalamus
sleep waves
1) which type of wave is associated with relaxed wakefulness
2) which is associated with REM
3) which is associated with slow, deep non-dreaming sleep
1) alpha
2) beta
3) delta
what types of changes in sleep are seen in depressed people related to:
1) onset of REM
2) % of REM
3) amount of slow wave sleep
1) more rapid onset
2) increased
3) decreased
1) what condition is associated with XO
2) what does XO mean
3) who does the disease affect
4) what complications are associated - physical, cognitive, both?
1) Turner's Syndrome
2) 1 of 2 X chromosomes is missing or incomplete
3) females only
4) physical only?
1) What types of complications are associated with Fragile X syndrome?
2) more common in males/females?
1) MR and physical & behavioral abnormalities
2) males

(most common inherited cause of MR)
1) what brain part is associated
2) what neurotransmitter
3) apparent at about what age
1) basal ganglia
2) lack of GABA
3) 35-45
1) where is the pain in a cluster headache? Intensity?
2) for a tension headache?
1) intense pain behind the eye
2) begins in frontal or occipital area, proceeds to bilateral dull ache
bio-feedback - which is the best type for:
1) migraines
2) seizure disorder
3) tension headaches
4) Reynaud's
5) hyperactivity
1) thermal
2) EEG
3) EMG
4) thermal
5) EEG
1) tx of choice for Raynaud's
2) best tx for migraines
3) tx for tension headaches, HTN, general anxiety
1) thermal biofeedback
2) thermal biofeedback + autogenic training
3) relaxation training is AS effective as biofeedback
1) toes spreading when sole of foot touched
2) digital extension and arching of back when startled
3) automatically grapsing at object placed in hand
4) turning cheek toward where it has been touched
1) Babinski (planar)
2) Moro
3) rooting
4) grasp
which glad releases growth hormone
1) what sxs are assoc w/ acute hypoglycemia?
2) with chronic?
1) panic & anxiety
2) depression & psychosis
which neurotrasmitters are involved
1) too little dopamine
2) too much ACh
Terms for:
1) color blindness
2) synthesis of several senses
1) achromatopia
2) synesthesia
Three phases of antidepressant tx and corresponding times
1) acute - 4-6 wks
2) continuation (prevent relapse) - 4-9 wks
3) maintenance (prevent recurrent) - 2 yrs-lifetime
what is an important consideration before prescribing tricyclics
risk for suicidality b/c tricyclics are lethal in overdose
1) used to tx
2) contraindication
2) Tourette's
Withdrawals sxs:
1) cocaine & amphetamine
2) opioids
3) antipsychotics
1) dysphoria, fatigue
2) nausea, vomiting, muscle aches, dysphoria
3) insomnia, nightmares, GI distress
withdrawal from benzodiazepines occures in 3 stages.
what sxs are associated with each stage?
1) tremors, sweats, agitation, autonomic reactions
2) hallucinations, panic
3) grand mal seizures
how is operant conditioning different from classical with regard to new responses
operant conditioning allows learning of new response

classical does NOT involve acquisition of NEW response - only connection of existing response to NEW stimulus
1) what happens in backward conditioning
2) what does this show about the required elements for conditioning
1) US then CS --> no response

2) contiguity (closeness btwn stimuli) is NOT enough
what is the strength of the CR in comparison to UR
classical extinction
gradual disappearance of a CR as a result of ___
presentation of CS alone
Are the following concepts associated with operant or classical conditioning (or both)?
1) experimental neurosis
2) law of effect
3) extinction burst
4) blocking
5) chaining
6) stimulus generalization
7) escape conditio
1) CC
2) OC
3) OC
4) CC
5) OC
6) both
7) OC
8) OC
9) OC
1) what is spontaneous recovery
2) what does this suggest about learning
1) following extinction, relearning of the CR is quicker than original learning
2) once something is learned, it is not forgotten but rather INHIBITED
stimulus generalization
1) what is it in classical
2) what is it in operant
1) subject responds not only to CS but also to stimuli SIMILAR to CS
2) subject learns to respond to other cues hoping for reinforcement
what is experimental neurosis due to
difficult stimulus discrimination
what is happening in higher order conditioning
SECOND neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with the CS
-> then this second stimulus also produces the CR when presented alone
1) occurs when using what type of reinforcement schedule
2) what does the law predict -- __ will match __
1) concurrent
2) proportion of response will match proportion of reinforcements
what happens in blocking
effect of one CS overshadows effects of another CS

CS -> US elicits CR
CS + CS2 -> US elicits CR
CS2 alone does NOT elicit CR
what theory predicts that the more suprising the US, the more conditioning will occur
Rescorla-Wagner theory
1) what does the tension-reduction hypothesis predict
2) what does research show
1) ETOH use reduces stress
reinforces ETOH use
increases likelihood of ETOH use
2) research shows theory is oversimplistic
1) Watson's white rat experiment demonstrated what concept
2) can explain the formation of what type of disorder
1) stimulus generalization
2) phobia
1) who is connected with the concept of neurotic depression
2) what is it linked to
3) what is the tx
1) Wolpe
2) anxiety
3) systematic desensitization
Sensate focus
1) used to tx
2) what behavioral concept is associated
3) how does it work
1) premature ejaculation & vaginismus
2) counter conditioning
3) pair anxiety-provoking situation with pleasurable physical sensation
1) aversive conditioning pairs __ and __
2) how effective in terms of relapse? generalizability?
3) for ETOH, what is the most effective aversive stimulus
1) target (maladaptive) behavior and aversive condition
2) high relapse; low generalizability
3) nausea (more than shock)
how is covert sensitization related to aversive conditioning
it is imagined aversive conditioning
how are flooding and implosive therapy similar? different?
similar - both are classical extinction
different - flooding is in vivo, implosive is imagined
which is most effective:
1) short duration or long exposure
2) high anxiety or low anxiety
1) long exposure (short duration can INCREASE sensitivity)
2) low anxiety
1) What is the Law of Effect
2) with whom is it associated
1) positive consequences increase behavior
negative ones have little or no effect
2) Thorndike
1) what is happening in operant extinction
2) what is the initial phase in operant extinction
1) decrease or eliminate behavior by withholding reinforcement from a previously reinforced behavior
2) extinction burse
what is the difference btwn a primary and secondary reinforcer
1) primary is unconditioned (toys, food)
secondary is conditioned (token, money)
schedules of reinforcement
1) 4 main types
2) subtypes
1) continuous, intermittent, concurrent, non-contingent
2) intermittent types:
fixed interval
variable interval
fixed ratio
variable ratio
For reinforcement on an intermittent schedule, what rate of responding is associated with each:
1) fixed interval
2) variable interval
3) fixed ratio
4) variable ratio
1) low rates of responding (stops after reinforcement)
2) responds at a steady but relativey low rate
3) high, steady rate of responding - brief pause following reinforcement
4) highest response rate
most resistant to extiction
what types of behaviors result from non-contingent reinforcement
superstitious, odd, ritualistic behavior
what determines when a behavior is under stimulus control
when behavior is based on a stimulus (cue) that tells whether a response wil be reinforced or not
1) each response serves as both a __ for the previous response
a __ for the next response
2) final response in a chain is a __
1) secondary reinforcer; positive discriminative stimulus
2) primary reinforcer
how is stimulus generalization different from response generalization
stimulus - similar stimulus elicits same response

response - discriminative stimulus elicts responses similar to original response
escape conditioning and avoidance conditioning
1) escape and avoidance behaviors are maintained by __
2) which also involves classical conditioning? what is this type of learning called where both operant and classical are used?
3) what is
1) reinforcement
2) avoidance
two-factor learning
3) escape - increasing behavior allows escape (neg reinforcement)
avoidance - onset of negative reinforcer is preceded by a cue, and target behavior is elicited by the cue alone
4) avoidance
what is happening in satiation
reinforcer loses reinforcing power
thinning is the process of reducing proportion of reinforcement from __ schedule to __ schedule (in maintenance)
continous; intermittent
1) what is fading
2) what is shaping
1) gradual removal of prompts while teaching a new response
2) reinforcing successive approximations to desired behavior
1) 3 types of differential reinforcement
2) incorporates use of which two behavioral concepts
1) DRI - diff rein of incompatible behaviors
DRA - of alternative behaviors
DRO - of other behaviors

2) positive reinforcement and extinction
for punishment to be effective:
1) on what schedule should it be delivered
2) what intensity
3) when
4) what other factor can increase efficacy
1) continous schedule (consistency)
2) moderate intensity
too strong -> avoidance, aggression
too weak -> habituation
3) immediately
4) differential reinforcement (reinforcement for alternative behaviors)
1) what behavioral concept is associated with restitution for negative effects of behavior
2) what type of intervention does it often involve
1) overcorrection
2) positive practice (with physical guidance)
which type of reinforcement schedule is easier to extinguish:
continuous or intermittent

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