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SPCM 277


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2 Ideological explanations for race in media
intentional and unintentional prejudice
disadvantages of experiments
often uses limited sample of people, artificial setting and situations
2 Alternative Causal Methods 

Reverse Causal Models

Third-factor Model 

advantages of experiments
can observe/ manipulate events, can observe time order
Advantages of Survey

representative sample of people

measures naturally occurring events 

disadvantages of survey 

limited to questions

cannot measure time order 

advantages of survey and experiments do what?
cancel each other out
What element protects the media?

First Amendment

Are there more methods to control electronic or print media
What methods control electronic media?
v-chip, ratings, children's television act
What was the direct effects era?
automatic led to effect, only one cause
What are the advantages of content analysis
we can say here's whas in the content
What are the disadvantages of content analysis
Don't know how its going to affect someone
What is the basic premise of uses and gratifications?

what happens before and during media exposure helps determine the effects of exposure

What does the model for Uses and Gratifications Look like?
Psychological and social forces -->reasons for exposure--> conditions of exposure --> media effects
5 Reasons for media exposure
surveillance, entertainment, interpersonal activity, parasocial interaction, personal identity
What is cultivation?

Our perceptions of the world are shaped by the portrayal of reality on television

What is social learning?

We learn from watching other people

What is the social learning model?
attention to performance of behavior--> learning behavior --> performance behavior
What two important conditions must be kept to accomplish social learning?
identification with model and model gets rewards/consequences
What is the excitation transfer model?
content --> arousal --> exaggeration of feeling
What is the desensitization model? 
repeated exposure --> reduced emotional response --> acceptance of depicted behavior
What is exemplification?
New stories supply examples of extreme cases which are seen as norm.
What is the exemplification model?
exposure to example in news --> recall of examples --> examples used in belief and judgements
What is catharsis? 

Media content gives us special emotions and we imagine that's us.

What is reinforcement?

Media content merely reinforces the way people already are

What are the two alternative causal models?
Third factor model and reverse causal model
What did the survey about Media Violence Research find?
in ALL cases, exposure to violence leads to aggression
What did the kids who watched the Untouchables do with the button to hurt the student?
Pressed it more often and held it down longer.
What are two theoretical approaches to possible effects of Race in Crime News?

exemplification -we see extreme examples of race and don't know norm

social learning - learn what criminals do and what police officers do 

How are blacks depicted in news stories?
Over-represented as perpetrators, pretty close on victims.
How are Latinos depicted in news stories
under-represented as perpetrators AND victims
How are whites depicted in news stories?
over-represented as victims (twice as many as blacks or Latinos)
3 structural explanations for race in media
limited time and resources, news values, perceptions of audience preference
What criticism is there about News Media and Race?
Not as much research as we'd like because its a new field.
What regulation and ownership does the government have?
regulates purchase and sale of large companies
3 justifications for regulating ownership
first amendment protections, public space considerations, recognition of local monopolies
what is vertical integration
studio owns cameras, director, studio, and theatres
2 ownership trends for newspapers
fewer papers per market, growth of newspaper chains
2 ownership trends for magazines
growth in number of magazines, growth of magazine chains
What is the limit on how much a radio or television station can own    
No more than 35% percent
Two trends common in all media?
vertical integration and synergy
What is agenda setting?

We decide what are important issues based on what the media talks about the most

4 ways media communicates importance
story selection, repetition, placement, other story features (pictures)
Agenda setting model
exposure to media agenda --> issue perceptions --> personal agenda
How is agenda setting research done with one-time surveys?
compare media agenda with public agenda
How is agenda setting research done with over-time surveys?
deal with time order, track a single issue over time
How is agenda setting research done with experiments?
people watched 30 minutes of news each day, some see more stories and defens, others about pollution, others about inflation. defense went up, pollution went up, inflation did not change
What is news farming

A set of decisions about how media content should be talked about or shown

What is issue priming?
focus on issue, use a single issue to choose a candidate
what is episodic framing?
focus on personal accounts
what is thematic framing?
broad look, focus on society as whole
2 supplemental models
multiple causes model, mutual causation model, intervening variable model


according to cultivation theorists, people are different. Because television tends to be uniform, groups who are very different start to come closer together because they are exposed to the s


when peoples real world experiences match what they see on television, it makes the cultivation effect stronger

What is the criticism of media violence research    
reverse causation model
Results of 

People were exposed to sexual violence  for 6 weeks then shown mock-rape trial

Reduced punishments in mock-rape trial

what is happy violence

Sexually violent content and rewarded vs punished. Punished won't be imitated.

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