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EPPP Developmental 2


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Info coded in Genes
Observed and measured, eg height and eye color. Interaction between genetics and environment
Critical Periods
limited time in which a person is biologically prepared to acquire certain behaviors, eg hatched geese
Sensitive Periods
In humans, sensitive period is often used instead of critical period.
Characteristics resistant to environmental factors. narrow devlopment path, eg sensorimotor development
Secular Trends
Timing of physical changes, eg menarche
Chromosomes: number/sex
23 pairs, 22 identical, 23rd for sex. xx=female, xy=male
22 idenitcal pairs of chromosomes
Dominant gene examples/blood
hair, hearring type B blood
Recessive Gene: Examples/blood
red hair, susceptibility to poison ivy, Type O blood
Sex Linked Genes: examples
red green color blindness, mostly carried on x chromosome, making males much more likely to receive as they don't have another X which can cancel it out
Recessive Gene Disorders
caused by presence of 2 recessive genes, eg PKU, Tay-Sachs, sickle cell, cystic fibrosis
can't digest phenylalanine and must not eat milk, eggs, fish or bread during first 6=9 years of life.
Dominant Gene Disorders
Caused by one dominant gene. Eg, Huntington's Chorea.
Chromosome Abnormality Disorders, example
Down Syndrone, Klinefelter's Syndrone
Down Syndrone: rate/why
Extra number 21 chromosome, 1 in 800 but rises with age to 1 in 30 for mothers over 45
Klinefelter's Syndrone
in males, extra x chromosome, often sterile, incomplete seconday sex characteristics
Bronfenbrenner: What model/systems
Ecological Model: Four interacting systems including:Microsystem (immdeiate setting, family and school);Mesosystem (interactions of childs microsystem);EXOSYSTEM (aspects child is affected but not in direct contact with, eg parent's jobs and friends);MACROSYSTEM (Cultural context, eg racism, socio-economic)
Rutter: Six factors affecting Psychopathology/risk %
1.Low Socioecon, size 3. severe marital discord 4. parental criminality 5. maternal psychopathology, 6. placement of child outside home. Risk is 2% with none or one factors and 21% for 4 or more
Teratogens: Germinal period: When/what
Conception to implantation. range from little affect to death.
Embryonic Perion: when/risk
end of second week after conception to end of 8th week. CNS and heart vulnerable 3rd-6th week.
Fetal period: when/risk
9th week till birth/less risk to organs but external genitalia and the brain
Teratogens: Alcohol:Impact
FAS, largely irreversible. leading cause of MR in kids. IQ averages 2 SD below mean
Teratogens: Drugs:Impact
Heroin/methodone increases prematurity, low bw, mortality at birth
Teratogens: Smoking:Impact
prematurity, low bw, death. Kids are less responsive, more irritable,
Piaget: Congitive development basis
adaption, cognitive schemas modified thru interaction with environment
Piaget: Cogn dev two processes
Assimilation: new info into existing schemas. Accomodation: Modify schemas to account for new info
Piaget: Cogn Dev 4 stages
SENSORIMOTOR:up to 2 years, includes object permanence, deferred initiation. PRE-OPERATIONAL: age 2-7, egocentric, inability to conserve. CONCRETE OPERATIONAL: 7-12, Conserves. FORMAL OPERATIONAL: 12 & up. Process info in abstract & hypothetical ways
Piaget: Equilabration
The process of assimilation and accommodation as complimentary processes.
Infant Reflex: Tonic Neck
infant extends his arm when someone turns his head side to side
Infant Reflex: Palmar grasp reflex
infant grasps finger pressed against surface of her palm
Infant Reflex: Babinski reflex
infant extends big toe and spreads small toe when sole of his foot is stroked
Infant Reflex: Moro reflex
when someone supporting infant body permits head to drop slightly, or suddden loud sounds, infant arches back, extends legs, throws arms upward
Infant Reflex: stepping reflex
infant help upright position and soles of feet touch groud, infant makes stepping motions
Infant Vision: acuity/ability
20/600 birth, 20/100 at 6 mths. Within minutes of birth prefer facial images, 2-3 mths have full color, 6mths have depth perception
Infant Hearing: timing/ability
By 3 days recognize mothers voice. Sound localization starts and stops between 40-100 days. Fully developed by about 12 mths of age
Infant Taste: which
can distinguish between bitter, sweet, sour and salty. Prefer sweet
Infant: Smell
respond to unleasant odors right away and discriminate between odors by 2-7 days
Infant Motor Skills:
ealry training no impact on basic skills but may affect complext motor skills
Vygotsky: Theory of Cogn Dev`
based upon cultural, social and historical factors
Vygotsky: Zone of Proximal Development
gap between what child can do alone and with assistance
Vygotsky: Scaffolding
support provided to child by others
Scaffolding: author
Zone of Proximal Development
knowledge about one's own memory
Infant Crying: which three at birth, which follows later/when
hunger, pain, anger followed three weeks later by cry for attention
Code Switching:
when bilingual and switches to another language
Attachment Bowlby: Theory called/def
Ethological: infants and mothers biologically programmed for attachment
Ethological Attachment Theory:author/phases
Bowlby/shows pref for mom by 4 mths, clear signs of attachment by 6=7 mths. SOCIAL REFERENCING: reads emotional reactions of others, SEPARATION ANXIETY: Starts a 6 mths and peaks at 14-18 months and then declines to little between 24-36mths. STRANGER ANXIETY: starts 8-10 months and peaks at 18 months, PROLONGED SEPARATION: 15-30 months is hardest, with protest and despair
SOCIAL REFERENCING: reads emotional reactions of others
SEPARATION ANXIETY: Starts a 6 mths and peaks at 14-18 months and then declines to little between 24-36mths
STRANGER ANXIETY: starts 8-10 months and peaks at 18 months
PROLONGED SEPARATION: 15-30 months is hardest, with protest and despair
memory: babies: by when
2-3 months can recall some info when provided with cues.
Memory: children. Recall events of several months ago by age____?
Crying in general:physiological arousal
heart rate, skin conductance
Crying impact:
Most to least: first time parents, parents,non-parents. Pain cry most unpleasant and most response
Language Acquisition:Behavioral
result fo classic and operant conditioning and imitation. includes motherese and recasting-rephrasing a child sentence
Language Acquisition: Nativist: Who/what
emphasize innate genetically-determined factors. Chomsky showed children apply complex grammer they could not have previouly learned. research agrees
Language Acquisition: Cognitive
language acquisition is motivated by childs desire to express meaning
Language First words: when
10-16 months
Attachment: Patterns:Who
Attachment: Child: 4 types
1)secure,2)anxious/avoidant, 3)anxious/resistant, 4)Disorganized/Disoriented
Attachment Child: Secure:
distress when she leaves, seeks when she returns
Attachment Child :Anxious/Avoidant
no distress when mom leaves, avoids when returns. Uninterested in environment
Attachment Child :Anxious resistant
very distressed when leaves, ambivalent when returns
Attachment Child : Disorganized/Disoriented
alternate between avoid/resist and proximity seeking. Dazed, confused. maltreated
Adult attachment: 4 types
1)secure-autonomous 2)Dismissing, 3)Preoccupied 4)Unresolved
Attachment Adult: Secure-autonomous
value attachment-secure base
Attachment Adult: Dismissing
devalue attachment, guarded and defensive. Idealize parents with no facts to support
Attachment Adult: Preoccupied
confused and incoherent, dissappointed and emeshed
Attachment Adult:Unresolved
severe trauma. Haven't dealth with. Children are often disorganized
Peer Relations: Girls enabling style
Agreement, suggestions, support. VALUE: intimate emotional aspects
Peer Relations: Boys Restrictive Style
Braggings, Contradicting, interrupting. VALUE sharing activities and interests
Peer Rejection:
rejected kids have more psychological problems than neglected. Less likely to help if moved
Peer Neglect
Mostly social isolation
Piaget Moral Development: two stages
Piaget Morality: HETERONOMOUS Stage: Age/Def
4-7, rules absolute,unchangeable, consequences matter
Piaget Morality: AUTONOMOUS Stage: Age/Def
age 7-8, rules are alterable, intentions matter
Kohlberg Moral Development: two stages each of three main areas named:
Preconventional, Conventional, Post Conventional
Preconventional def and two stages Defs
Morality based upon consequences. Stage 1, avoid punishment and obedience orientation, Steg 2: hedonistic orientation. what satisfies their own needs is good.
Conventional def and two stages def, age of transition
desires to maintain existing social laws. Stage 3; goal approval of friends and relatives, stage 4 obey society. transition to conventional ages 10-13
Post Conventional: Def, two stages def
morality based upon self-chosen principals. Stage 5 uphold democracy but laws can be broken for valid reason. Stage 6: morality represents universal ethical principals. Not everyone reaches this stage
Freud six stages/Ages
Oral(1 year), ANAL(1-3),PHALLIC(3-6), LATENCY(6-Puberty), GENITAL (post Puberty
Freud: Oral:Relates to Erickson's stage____
Trust versus Mistrust
Freud Anal: Relates to Erickson's Stage____
Autonomy versus Shame
Freud Phallic: Relates to Erickson's Stage____
Initiative versus guilt
Freud latency: Relates to Erickson's Stage____
Industry v. inferiority
Freud genital: Relates to Erickson's Stage____
identity v. role confusion
Erickson Six Stages: ages
Trust v. mistrust(1), Autonomy v. Shame(1-3), initiative v. guilt(3-6), industry v. inferiority(6-puberty), identity v. role confusion(adolescence), intimacy v. isolation(young adult), generativity v. stagnation(midddle adult), integrity v. dispair(old age).
Parenting: List 4 types
authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, uninvolved
Parenting: Authoritative def
high standards but explains, warm and nurturant. best results
Parenting: authoritarian
controlling, demanding, expect children to accept commands in unquestioning manner. Results: timid and unhappy
Parenting: Permissive
nurturant but fail to assert authority
children and non-compliant and demanding, lack self-control and are anti-social. Most predict delinquency
Identity: Marcia 4 types
diffusion, foreclosure, moratorium, achievement
Identity: Marcia diffusion
I don't know
Identity: Marcia: Foreclosure
I'll be fireman like my dad
Identity: Marcia: Moratorium
indecicion during crisis
Identity: Marcia: Achievement
resolved crisis and knows
Gilligan, Carol: Girls and identity. What?
"loss of voice" Girls may abandon themselves to fit cultural expectations
Agresssion: Boys v girls
same during year one, more for boys after. Social and biological.
Agressions and parenting: link
agressive kids come from homes which lack warmth and are rejecting. Either permissive or indifferent. Also insercure/resistant attachment pattern
Agressive children cognitive
more likely to interpret acts of others as hostile
TV viewing of agression
increases agression
Agression Child intervention:
social skills training, cathartic not affective
Children Chromic illness: highest risk of not complying
Divorce Impact: most short-term impact
Divorce Impact: Most Long term
Divorce Impact: Most negative School performance
older and boys
Levinson: Adult development stages: % midlife crisis
Neugarten Kansas City Study
Adult life stages, shift from time since birth to time until death
Aging and intelligence: verbal versus processing
little verbal decline, but decline in tasks requiring rapid processing.
Aging and intelligence: WAIS
Little decline in stored knowledge/verbal subtests (info, vocab, arithmetic, comp, similarities, digit span), sharper decline in all five performance subtests
Aging and intelligence: which declines, crystallized v fluid, def of each
crystallized (knowledge acquired via ed and experievces) declines little and Fluid(active processing of info and affected by neuron loss) most affected
Aging and Memory: brain shrink
starts at 30 and reduces 20% by age 80
Aging and Memory: Impact: most/leaste
most=recent long term, followed by working, leaste=remote long-term
Short-term memory: Two types and def, impact with age
PRIMARY(retain an small amount for short time), WORKING (ability to manipulate and transform info in primary memory. Working declines with age
Long-Term memory: Two types and def, impact with age
RECENT and REMOTE. Most impact on recent
Episodic v Semantic v Procedural; most decline?
Episodic (ability to recall personal experiences)
Semantic memory Def
common knowledge of such things as historical figures, public events, and frequently used words
Episodic memory Def
personal experiences
Procedural Memory Def
long-term memory of skills and procedures, or "how to" knowledge
Adult Memory: Explicit V Implicit. Most decline
Metamemory: Def
knowledge of one's memory capacity
Kubler-Ross Facing death stages
denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance

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