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Chemistry Final Exam


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Cathode ray tubes --> electrons are attracted to + pole of plate, deflected by a magnet
oil drop experiment --> electron has negative charge, mass is 1/2000 mass of H atom
alpha particles --> tiny amount of space with dense. + charged matter (Nucleus)
discovered neutron
Bohr model of atom, orbitals, lowest energy states, energy from orbit changes
conservation of matter
Definite mass percentages
Dalton 1
all matter is composed of atoms
Dalton 2
atoms are indivisible and indestructible
Dalton 3
Atom's mass distinguishes one atom from another
Dalton 4
Atoms combine in Definite Whole # Ratios when forming compounds
Law of Conservation of Mass
mass is neither destroyed nor created during ordinary chemical or physical reactions
Law of Definite Proportions
a chemical compound contains the same elements in exactly the same proportions by mass regardless of the size or source of the compound
Law of Multiple Proportions
if 2+ diff. compounds are composed of the same 2 elements, then the ratio of the masses of the 2nd element combined with a certain mass of the 1st element is always a ratio of small whole proportions
Electromagnetic Radiation
a form of energy that exhibits wave-like behavior as it travels through space
Types of electromagnetic radiation
visible light, x-rays, UV light, infrared light, microwaves, radio waves
Speed of light
3.0*10^8 m/s
distance between crests on adjacent waves (m,cm,nm)
# of waves that pass a given point in a specific time
ratio of wavelength to frequency
Speed of light (c) = wavelength*frequency
Planck's constant
Energy of a photon equation
E-photon = Planck's constant*frequency

(E = hv)
the minimum quantity of energy that can be lost or gained by an atom
H-Atom Line-Emission Spectrum
a series of specific wavelengths from when the visible portion of the emitted light is passed through a prism
Equation for the emission of energy
Ephoton= excited - ground
photoelectric effect
the emission of electrons from a metal when light shines on it, a minimum frequency of light required
UV light
Lyman series, longer transitions
Red Light
Balmer series, medium transitions
Visible Light
Paschen series, shorter transitions
Light behaves as a wave in the
Photoelectric effect and the line emission spectrum
Light behaves as a particle when
Quantum numbers and the Bohr's model of the atom
Debroglie's equation
wavelength = planck's constant/(mass*velocity)
Quantum Mechanics theory was deriven by
Quantum Mechanics theory parts
Wave Functions
Energy Levels
Principal Quantum Numbers
Principal Quantum Numbers (n)
describe main principal energy levels/states

n = 1,2,3...
n^2 represents
# possible orbitals
2n^2 represents
maximum # electrons
Angular Momentum QN (l)
type of orbital/orbital shape
Principal QN rule
n = 1,2,3...
Angular Momentum QN rule
l < n-1
angular momentum value for s orbital
Magnetic QN meaning
orientation of an orbital in space
Magnetic QN rule(ml)
Pauley Exclusion Principle
no 2 electrons in the same atom can have the same 4 QNs
Spin QN
+1/2 or -1/2
Aufbau Principle
electrons go into the lowest energy orbitals
Hund's rule
electrons occupy equal energy orbitals singly with parallel spin
Mendeleev organized periodic table according to?
atomic mass
Moseley organized the periodic table according to?
atomic #
Group 1
Alkali metals
Group 2
Alkaline-Earth Metals
Group 17
Group 18
Noble Gases
2 columns at bottom of periodic table are called?
Lactanides and Actinides
Atomic Radius horizontal pattern?
Why do the atomic radii __________ horizontally?
Increasing positive charge of nucleus, pulled closer to more protons
Atomic Radius vertical pattern?
Why does the atomic radius _________ vertically?
electrons filling successively higher main energy levels located farther from the nucleus
Ionization Energy is...
the energy required to remove one electron from a neutral atom of an element
Ionization Energy horizontal pattern?
reason for Ionization energy horizontal energy pattern
increasing nuclear charge which more strongly attracts electrons in the same energy level, more difficult to remove
Ionization energy vertical pattern?
Reason for vertical ionization energy pattern
removed more easily because they are further from the nucleus
Electron affinity is...?
the energy change that occurs when an electron is acquired by a neutral atom
Electron affinity horizontal pattern?
Increasing (negatively)
Electron affinity vertical pattern?
decreases (negatively)
a positive ion
Cationic radii and ionic radii ___ across a period?
Why do Cationic radii and Anionic ___ across a period?
because electron cloud shrinks, protons have more affect
Cationic radii and Anionic ___ down a group?
Why do ionic radii ___ down a group?
because outer electrons are in higher energy levels
a negative ion
Electronnegativity is...?
A measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electrons
The most electronegative element is ?
Electronnegativity ____ across a period
Why does electronnegativity ___ across a period?
Closer to noble gas configuration
Electronegativity ____ down a group
decreases (in general)

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