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Exam 3 Chapter 14 Pathophysiology

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Describe Levels of Consciousness? (P.356)
- Most Critical Index of Nervous System Function
- Highest Level is Orientation to Self, Others, & Place
- Refer To P.358
Distinguish Between Cerebral Death & Brain Death? (P.362)
Cerebral Death:
- Irreversible Coma
- Death of Brain Stem & Cerebellum
- Brain Can Maintain Homeostasis

Brain Death:
- Brain is Damaged So Completely It Cannot Recover
- Brain Cannot Maintain Homeostasis
- Irreversible Cessation of Entire Brain
Define Seizure? (P.363)
- Sudden Explosive Disorderly Discharge of Cerebral Neurons
- Involves Motor, Sensory, Autonomic, or Psychic Manifestations
- Produces Brief Disruption of Brains Electrical Functions
What are the Conditions Associated with Seizure Disorders? (P.363)
- Epilepsy – No Underlying Cause Can Be Found
- Cerebral Lesions
- Biochemical Disorders
- Stimulants & Withdrawal from Depressants (Alcohol)
Characterize the Stages of ICP? (P.372)
Stage 1:
- Compensates by Vasoconstriction & External Compression of Venous System
- ICP May Not Change Due to Compensation Mechanism
- PERRLA

Stage 2:
- Subtle Clinical Manifestations Confusion, Restlessness, Drowsiness
- PERRLA
- Immediate Surgical/Medical Intervention Required

Stage 3:
- Autoregulation (Compensatory Regulation of Cranial Blood Vessels) Is Lost
- Brain Tissue Experiences Severe Hypoxia/Acidosis

Stage 4:
- Brain Tissue Herniates (Shifts)
- Systolic Arterial Pressure Equal ICP and Blow Flow Stops
Identify the Protective Structures of the CNS? (P???)
- Not Completed
Differentiate Between Focal and Diffuse Brain Trauma? (P.394)
Focal:
- Restricted To One Region
- Extradural/Subdural Hematomas

Diffuse:
- Injury To Cells In Many Areas
- Typically From a Shaking Effect (Vehicular Crashes)
- Classes Include: Mild/Classic Concussions, Moderate/Severe DAI
Compare and Contrast Cerebrovascular Accidents? (P.404)
- Thrombolytic: Arteries Supplying Brain Occluded By Thrombi Within Brain
- Embolic: Fragments From Outside Brain Form Thrombus
- Hemorrhagic: Intercranial Hemorrhage
Compare Meningitis and Encephalitis? (P.408-411)
- Meningitis: Infection of Meningitis Caused By Bacteria, Viruses, or Fungi
- Encephalitis: Acute Febrile Illness of Viral Origins with Nervous System Involvement
Level of Consciouness is the Most Critical Index of Nervous System Function? (P.356)
- True
Cognitive Function Can Still Occur with Brain Stem Injury? (P.363)
- False
When Evaluating Pupillary Responses in Unconscious Individuals, One Must take into Account the Drugs the Individual has received? (P.359)
- True
The Clonic Phase Involves Alternating Contraction and Relaxation of Muscles? (P.365)
- True
In Cases of Diffuse Brain Injury Cognitive Problems such as Memory Deficits and Learning Difficulties are Clinical Manifestations?
- False
Decorticate & Decerbrate Posturing Maybe Present With Diffuse Axonal Injury?
- True
Autonomic Dysreflexia Will Most Likely Occur Before Spinal Shock Is Resolved?
- False
Meningitis maybe caused by Bacteria, Viruses, or Fungi?
- True
The Peripheral Nervous System is the Main Location of Lesions in those with Multiple Sclerosis?
- False

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