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Chem FINAL 2


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unit cell
The smallest group of particles within a crystal that retains the geometric shape of the crystal
Gay-Lussac's Law
The pressure of a gas is directly proportional to the K temp if volume is constant
Boyle's law
for a given mass at a constant temp, the volume of gas varies inversly with pressure
Charles' law
volume of a fixed amount of gas is directly proporttional to K temp if pressure is kept constant
the tendency of molecules and ions to move toward areas of lower concentration until the concentration is uniform throughout the system
a process that occurs when a gas escapes through a tiny hole in its container; the diffusion of gases
tendency for the atoms of the element to attract electrons when they are chemically combined with atoms of another element
valence electrons
electron in the highest occupied energy level of an atom
wetting agent that stands for the surface active agent and substance whose molecules interface with a hydrogen bonding between water molecules, reducing surface tension
dissolving medium (water)
substance being dissolved
process of dissolving an ionic solute; as temp decreases, solubility decreases, same with increasing
mixture from which particles settle out upon standing
colloidal dispersions of liquids in liquids
negative logarithm of hydrogen ion concentration
acid or base that undergoes dissassociation in a known pH range
process of adding a known amount of soution of known concentration to determine the concentration of another solution; continued the indicator shows that neutralization has just occurred
oxidation-reduction reactions
chemical changes that occur when electrons are transferred between reactants
complete or partial loss electrons, loss of H, gain of O
complete of partial gain of electrons, gain of H, loss of O
oxidation-number change method
balances a redox reaction by comparing the increases and decreases in oxidation numbers
conversion of a solid to a gas or vapor without passing through the liquid state
covalent bond
sharing of electrons to achieve stability
ionic bond
forces of attraction that binds oppositely charged ions together
metallic bond
attraction of free floating valence electrons for positively charged metal ions
bond dissassociation energy
energy required to break a single bond; explains stability of compounds
unshared pairs of electrons
valence electrons that are not shared between atoms and dont participate in bonding
coordinate covalent bond
covalent bond formed when one atom contributes both bonding electrons
VSEPR theory
because electron pairs repel, molecules adjust their shapes so that valence electron pairs are as far apart as possible
ground state
lowest energy level of an electron

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