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Comp Review - Heme


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What kind of cell is this?
Basophil - lg, dk, purple-blue granules. Cytoplasm is pale blue but often obscured by granules

What kind of cell is this?
eosinophil - pink or reddish orange granules

What kind of cell is this?

What kind of cell is this?
lymphocyte - agranulocyte, round nucleus w/ sm amt of cytoplasm

What kind of cell is this?
monocyte - agranulocyte, largest WBC, vacuoles in the lt blue/grey cytoplasm

What kind of cell is this?
neutrophil - most common WBC, rose/violet granules, lobed or segmented nucleus
What are the two types of WBCs called?
Granulocytes, agranulocytes
Name the three types of WBC granulocytes
Neutrophils, eosiniphils, and basophils
Name the two types of WBC agranulocytes
lymphocytes and monocytes
What are some general functions of WBCs?
control inflammation and bacterial infection, provide immunity, help clot blood,destroy clots, and prevent unwanted clots
What is the most common type of WBC?
What WBC forms the first line if defense against microbial infections?
What WBC granulocyte w/ pink staining granules fights allergic reactions by releasing anti-histamines?
What WBC granulocyte is very rare and releases histamine-heparin which induces inflammation and prevents clotting?
What WBC agranulocyte is the largest WBC and has vaculoes in its cytoplasm?
Which WBS agranulocyte has a round nucleus, a sm amt of cytoplasm and comes in two types - B and T cells?
What is the scientific name for RBCs?
What are three terms for RBC size description?
Normocytic, macrocytic, and microcytic
What does anisocytic mean?
Increased variance in RBC size
Feline RBCs should have no ____.
central pallor
What does the term polychromasia mean?
RBCs w/ a bluish tint - indicative of young cells
What is the scientific name for platelets?
What is the main function of thromobcytes?
What is the function of RBCc?
O2 xport and co2 excretion
What is the liquid and cellular portions of blood together called?
Whole blood
What is the liquid portion of whole blood called?
What is the liquid portion of clotted blood called?
What does a hemolyzed sample look like? What causes this?
pinkish - caused by traumatic veinipuncture, wet collection tube, freezing whole blood, needle too small, forcing blood through needle
What info should be labeled onto the blood sample?
Date,tech initials, pt name/id, time, chart #
How soon after drawing a whole blood sample should it be used?
2-3 hours at room optimally
Whzt kind of blood samples can be frozen? How long does it remain good for?
Plasma and serum - about 6 weeks
How long is a refrigerated plasma/serum sample good for?
about a week
___of blood yields about 1 ml of plasma or serum
3 ml
What does a lipemic sample of plasma/serum look like? Why
Milky white - fat in the sample (often from animal not being fasted)
What does an icteric plasma/serum sample look like?
yellow to amber in color - bilirubin in sample
Serum is collected in tubes w/ what color top?
red - no anticoagulant as you want the sample to clot
What is the most commonly used collection tube in vet med? What color?
purple - EDTA
What kind of tube is most commonly used for plasma collection? What color top?
Heparin, green top
How much blood can be safely removed from a patient?
10% of total blood volume
How is the total blood volume of a patient calculated?
10% of total body weight in kgs = total blood volume
What items are typically included in a CBC?
WBC count, diffential, RBC morphology, platelet estimates, HCT/PCV, TPP
Duplicate diffs can be averaged and reported only if :
Neuts w/i 10 cells, lymphs w/i 8, monos w/i 6, eos w/i 5, and basos and bands w/i 2
Platelet estimate formula
Avg # of platelets in 10 oil power (100x) fields x 15,000 = est platelets/ul
WBC estimate formula
Avg of 10 hpf (40x) fields x 2000 = est WBC/ul
WBC 4 sq formula & rules (1:20 dilution)
Count the 4 sq under 10x, Avg # of WBC x 50 = WBC/ul - ea sq must be w/i 10 cells & ea side w/i 20, results must end in 00 or 50
WBC 9 sq formula (1:100 dilution)
Avg # of WBC x 110 = WBC/ul - ea side w/i 20, results must end in 00 or 50
PCV/CTs are run in duplicate and must be w/i ___% to be reprotable
RBC count formula
Avg # of RBCs on 5 squares (4 corners and center) under 40x, x 10,000 = rbc/ul
In orderto be reportable, WBCs & RBCs must be w/i ___% of the ___ count
10% of the lower count
What is leukocytosis?
increased total WBC count
What is leukocytopenia?
decreased total WBC count
What is a left shift?
More than 5% of neuts are band cellsor younger
What is a right shift?
More than 5% of neuts are hypersegmented
What is neutrophilia? Causes?
Increase in # of neuts - muscular activity, emotional stimuli, bacterial infections
What is neutropenia? Causes?
Decrease in # of neuts - viral infections, SEVERE bacterial infections
What is eosinophilia? Causes?
increase in # of eos - parasitism, allergies
What is eosinopenia?
decrease in # of Eos - RARE, normal count can be 0
What is basophilia? Causes?
increase in # of basos - hyperthyroidism, heartworm
What is lymphocytosis? Causes?
increase in # of lymphocytes - adrenaline, certain cancers, young animals
What is lymphocytopenia? Causes?
decrease in # of lymphs - chronic infections, radiation exposure
What is monocytosis? Causes?
increase in # of monos - chronic inflammatory dzs, obstructions
What is anemia? Causes?
Decreased # of RBCs - blood loss, hemorrhage, and parasites
What is polycythemia?
increased # of RBCs - usually relative increases due to decreased plasma
**opposite of anemia**
What is thromocytosis? Causes?
increase # of platelets - injury, steroids, post-splenectomy
What is thrombocytopenia? Causes?
decreased # of platelets - hormone tx
What is poikilocytosis?
increased variation in SHAPE of RBCs
What are spherocytes? Hallmark for?
RBCs that are not biconcave, they are round and lack central pallor. Hallmark cell for Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia - AIHA
What are leptocytes? Associated with?
Target cells - look like a bullseye due to membrane defect - associated with chronic liver dz
What are schistocytes? Associated with?
Fragmented RBCs - associated with severe burn cases, and IDA
What are echinocytes? Caused by?
spiky, shrunken RBCs - preparation artifact
What are acanthocytes? Associated with?
Spiky RBCs - NOT not tech error, serious pathological condition associated w/ hepatic lipidosis and liver dz
What is a Howell-jolly body? Associated with?
sm portion of a nucleus that has been retained in a cell - associated w/ splenectomy
What is a Heinz body? Associated with?
inclusion of denatured precipitated hemoglobin, hang wout toward the edge of the cell - associated w/ Tylenol, onion and propylene glycol toxicity
What is roleaux?
chained or rolled coin appearance of RBCs
What is agglutination?
RBCs irregulary clumped together
What is the formulafor a corrected WBC count?
actual WBC count x 100 divided by 100 + # of NRBc
What is the normal range of RBCs for dogs im millions/ul? Average?
5.5-8.5, 6.8 avg
What is the normal range of RBCs for cats in millions/ul? Average?
5.5-10.0, avg 7.5
What is the normal PCV% range for dogs? Average?
37-55, 45.5% avg
What is the normal PCV% range for cats? Avg?
24-45, 37% avg
What is the normal Hemoglobin range (g/dl) for dogs? Avg?
12-18, 14.9 avg
What is the normal Hemoglobin range for cats? Avg?
8-14, 12 avg
What is the normal WBC/ul for dogs? Avg?
11,000 avg
What is the normal WBC/ul range for cats? Avg?
12,500 avg
What is the normal platelet range (n x 100,000/ul) for dogs? Avg?
3.4 avg
What is the normal platelet range (n x 100,000/ul) for cats? Avg?
4.5 avg
What is the normal TP range in g/dl for dogs?
What is the normal TP range in g/dl for cats?

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