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Chapter 9 Note cards


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Developing a qualitative study design involves decisions in regard to what aspects of the study?
Intervention versus no intervention
Nature of any comparisons
Methods of controlling extraneous variables
Timing of data collection
Research sites and settings
Communication with subjects
What are the Dimensions of Quantitative Research Design?
~Control over independent variable
~Type of group comparisons
~Observance of independent and dependent variables
What are the 4 designs associated with Control over independent variable?
preexperimental nonexperimental
What are the 2 designs associated with the type of group comparisons?
between- subjects vs. within-subjects designs
What are the 2 designs associated with Timeframes?
Cross-sectional vs.
longitudinal designs
What are the 2 designs associated with Observance of independent and dependent variables?
retrospective and prospective
What are the 2 designs associated with Setting?
Naturalistic setting, laboratory
What are the 3 Characteristics of a True Experiment?
Randomization (also called random assignment)—
What is manipulation property?
Manipulation—researcher does something to some subjects (introduces an intervention or treatment. experimenters vary the indepenant variable and then observe the dependant variable.
What is control property?
Control—researcher introduces controls, including a control group
What is the Randomization (also called random assignment) property?
Researcher assigns subjects to groups at random.
Typical assignment is to an experimental group or a control group.
May be done by computer or through a table of random numbers.
What is a experimental group?
This is the group receiving the treatment of interest.
What is a control group?
This refers ti a group of participants whose performance on a dependant variable is used to evaluate the performance of the experimental group.
What is a table of random numbers?
A table displaying hundreds of digits arranged in a random order.
Experimental Designs include:
~After-only (posttest-only) design
~Before-after (pretest posttest) design
~Factorial design
~Crossover (repeated measures) design
Counterfactual is?
the cotrol group condition that is used as a basis of comparison.
What are the possibilities for the Control Condition or Counterfactual?
~No intervention
~An alternative intervention
~A placebo or pseudo-intervention
~Standard methods of care
~Different doses or intensities of treatment
~Delayed treatment
What type of experiments lack either randomization or control group, but introduce other controls?
Types of quasi-experimental designs:
~Nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design
~Time series designs
Nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design
Involves 2 or more groups of subjects observed before and afterthe implementation of an intervention.
How is the quasi-experimental designs different from the experimental research designs?
Subject are not randomly assignedto groups.
Time series designs
This design does not have a control group nor uses randominization. test.Involves collecting data over an extended eriod of time and introducing the treatment during that period.
What is a preexperimental design?
~Lack control group and/or randomization
~Lack controls of quasi-experiments
Examples of preexperimental designs (2):
Nonequivalent control group, after-only design
One group before-after design
Evaluation of quasi-experimental and pre-experimental designs (what are advantages and disadvantages)
May be easier, more practical than true experiments but it more difficult to infer causality
and usually there are several alternative rival explanations for results
What is Nonexperimental research?
Take 2 groups and as the naturally occur and sopare their psychological and physical well being. This type of research involves observations rather than interventions.
What are the types of Nonexperimental research?
Correlational (ex post facto) research
Descriptive research
Correlational (ex post facto) research
Research is conducted after variation in the independant variable has occured. Basic purpose is to study relationship amoung variables.
What are Correlational (ex post facto) research with
prospective designs?
Starts with a presumed cause and then goes forward to the presumed effect.More costly but stronger.
What are Correlational (ex post facto) research with retrospective designs?
A phenomenaa is observed an in the present and is linked to phenomena occuring in the past.
_________ is often used to strengthen a retorspective design.
Case-control designs
What does a Case-control design involve?
comparing cases with a certian condition with controls who are selected to be familer to the cases with regard to key background factors that could be linked to the condition.
What is Descriptive research?
the purpose is to observe, describe, and document aspects of a situation. often referred to as Descriptive correlational study.
What does Descriptive correlational study mean?
that researchers were intrested in describing relationships among variables, without seeking to establish casual connections.
What are the 2 designs associated with Time deminsion?
What does Cross-sectional design mean?
Cross-sectional design—Data are collected at a single point in time
What does Longitudinal design mean?
Longitudinal design—Data are collected two or more times over an extended period
Retrospective studies are almost always _______.
cross sectional designs
what is the main advantage of a cross sectional design?
they are economical and easy to manage.
What are the 3 types of longitudinal studies?
Trend studies
Panel studies
Follow-up studies
Trend studies
Investigations in which samples from a population are studied over time with respect to some ohenomena, Different samples are selected from the same population at repeated intervals.
Panel studies
same people provide data at two or more points in time. Typically yeild more info. These are difficult and expensive.
What is sttrition?
loss of participants over time.
Follow-up studies
Are undertaken to determine the subsequent status of subjects with specified condition or those who recieve a specified intervention.
What are the basic two types of extrinsic varibles that need to be controlled?
external factors and intrinsic factors.
How are external factors controlled?
Control over environment(most likly achieved in lab), setting, time
How are intrinsic factors controlled?
Through Randomization to secure comparable groups.
Theugh homogeneity which is a restricting sample
Through matching which involves using information about a subject characteristic to form comparison group.
Through statistical control.
What is analysis of covariance?
a detailed description of powerful statistical control mechinisms.
What are the Characteristics of Good Research Design in Quantitative Studies?
Internal validity
Statistical conclusion validity
External validity
Construct validity
What is Statistical conclusion validity?
the ability to detect true relationships statistically
What is Internal validity?
the extent to which it can be inferred that the independent variable caused or influenced the dependent variable
What is External validity?
The generalizability of the findings to other samples or settings
What is Construct validity?
adequacy of measuring key constructs
What are the Threats to Statistical Conclusion Validity?
~Low statistical power
~Weak construction of independent variable and counterfactual
~Large differences between groups needed
~Unreliable implementation of a treatment
~Inadequate participation in treatment conditions
What is statistical power?
Associated with Statistical Conclusion Validity. it is the ability of the design to detect true relationships among variables.
What are the Threats to Internal Validity?
~History threat
~Selection threat
~Maturation threat
~Mortality threat
~Often a result of differential attrition from groups
What is the History threat?
Associated with Internal Validity. it is the occurance of events concurrent with the independant variable that can affect the dependat variable. Most likely effects one-group before- after designs and time series design.
What is the Selection threat?
Associated with Internal Validity. it encompasses biases resulting from preexisting differences between groups. when people are not assigned randomly the possibility always exist that groups being compared are not equivalent.
What is the Maturation threat?
Associated with Internal Validity. it arises from processes occuring as a aresult of time. One group before-after designs are espically vulnerable to this threat?
What is the Mortality threat?
Associated with Internal Validity. it stems from differential attrition of groups. Which means that subjets are lost during the study.
What are the Threats to External Validity?
Inadequate sampling
Novelty effect
Expectancy effect (Hawthorne effect)
Placebo effect
Artificiality of research environment
What is Inadequate sampling?
Associated with External Validity. the characteristics of the smple are not representative of the population.
What is the Novelty effect?
Associated with External Validity. This is when a treatment is new and subjects and researchers alter their behavior. they may be ethusiastic or skeptical about new methods of doing things.

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