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Adult Health Nursing ch 1


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What are characteristics of a protein?
Proteins can be re-used over and over again (enzymes), Highly specific (generally works with a particular molecule), breaks down and put together a molecule.
What is a protein?
A colorless, odorless, tasteless, and gaseous compound denoting chemicals containing carbon.
Why is RNA important?
A long single stranded chain used for transferring DNA information.
What is DNA?
A chemical primarily found in the nucleus that carries the instructions for making all the structures and materials the body needs to function.
What is teh normal range for potassium?
3.5-5 mEq/ L
What are 3 types of passive transport?
Simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis
what is an actuve transport?
pumping of molecules against a concentration gradient with the help of ATP.
What is ATP? Adenosine triphosphate
chemical bonds of stored energy that help speed up chemical reactions.
Name 3 tyoes of active transport?
cotransport, endocytosis, ionic pump
endocytosis consists of what 3 types of transports?
phagocytosis, pinocytosis, receptor mediated endocytosis
Concentrations: what is isotonic
Body fluids
more than body fluids. ex. cells shrink, .3 NaCl
less than body fluids, causes cell to explode, .45 NaCl
what is a miliequivalent?
It measures chemical activity or chemical combining with an ion.
Swollem cells are called?
Shrunken cells are called?
Normal cells are called?
osmotic equilibrium
What are electrolytes?
develop tiny electrical charges when they dissolve in water and break up into particles known as ions
Ions develope a ..?
positive or negative charge
Cations have a __ charge?
anions have a __ charge?
Summarize sodium?
most abundant electrolyte in the body. 134 - 142 mEq/L noram range. found in extracellular fluid. Regulates water balance, increases cell membrane permeability.
What is HYPOnatremia?
a less than normal concentration of sodium in the blood. Loss of sodium. Water is now retained in the body. Cells start to swell. Potassium imbalance is accompanied.
what is HYPERnatremia
greater than normal concentration of sodium in the blood. causes cellular dehydration and interuption in cellular process.
Summarize potassium?
normal range is 3.5- 5 mEq/L. Main function is to regulate water and electrolyte content.Promotes transmission of nerve impulses and skeletal muscle function.
What is HYPOkalemia?
(k+) a decrease in the body's potassium to a level below 3.5. Causes loss of renal excretion. Prolonged vomitting or GI suctioning may cause this.
what is HYPERkalemia?
increase in the body's potassium level above a 5 mEq/L. This is NOT common. Shock accompanies this damage.
What can cause HYPERkalemia?
Too much potassium. exessive salt intake, pottasium supplements, chemotherapy, potassiu diuretcs.
Summarize chloride?
(Cl-) 96-105 mEq/L. Chief anion.Necessary for the formation of hydrochloric acid in gastric juice. Regulation of acid base balance.
What is HYPOchloremia?
Occurs when sodium is lost. Sodium chloride paired. Causes are prolonged vomitting and prolonged NG tube.
what is HYPERchloremia?
When biocarbonate levels fall. No specific signs.

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