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Respiratory II


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cleft lip and palate
birth defects occur in 6th to 10th week of preg bones and tissues of baby's upper jaw nose and mouth don't fuse together to form rof of mouth and upper lip
what happens when there isn't enough tissue in developing mouth and palate
won't fuse together could be born with partial incomplete cleft palate or complete cleft palate
babies born with cleft lip have
gap or opening in skin of upper lip
incomplete cleft palate
an opening in only the soft palate in back of roof of mouth
complete cleft palatwe occurs
front part of roof on moueteh hard palate and soft palate haven't fused togwether
many cases baby born with complete cleft palate also has
cleft lip
nasal congestion stuffiness or obstruction to nasal breathing is
one of man's oldest and most common complaints
as age progresses there is a tendency for the septum
to bend to one side or the other oer foer an irregular shelf of cartilage or bone to develop SEPTAL SPUR
often ther is no history of injury to account for
irregular septum
septum loses its midline position during
growth process sometimes septum is bent as result of birth trauma
during childhood or adult life trauma
plays a major factor in producing septal deviation
45 pescent of normael adults
snore at least occasionally
25 percent habitual snorers
problem snoring is more ferequent in
males and overweight persons grows worse with age
snoring sounds caused
obstruction to free flow of air through passages at back of mouth and nose
adverse medical effects of snoring and association with
some methods used to alleviaete snoring and/or OSA
behaviore modificdation sleep positioning continuous positive airway pressure CPAP\
uvulopalataophayngoplast UPPP
laser assisted uvula palatoplast LAUP
and jaw adjustment techniques
what is continuous positive airway pressure CPAP
delivers air into airway through specially designed nasal mask or pillows
mask does not breathe for you flow of air creates enough pressiure when inhaled to keep airway open
CPAP considered most effective nonsurgical treatment for alleviation of snoring and obstructive sleep apnea
sleep apnea
loud snoring interrupeted by frequent episodes of totally obstructed breathing
serious episodes last
more than 10 seconds more thakn seven times aen hour 30-300 events per night
episodes of sleep apnea can
reduce blood oxygen levels heart pumps harder snorer must sleep light and keep muscles tense keep aiflow to lungs
what thappens when snorer does not get good nights rest
be sleepy during day impairs job performance makes hazaerdous driver after many years elevated blood pressure and heart enlargement
laser assisted uevula palatoplasty removing obstruction in airway outpatient local vaporize uvula and specified portion of paelate in series of small procedures
performed while positioned in upright sitting position in exam chair
injection snoreplasy
nonsurgical treatment involves injection of haerdening agent into upper palate
may reduce loudness and incidence of primary snoring without apnea or cessation of breathe
tonsils and adenoids
masses of tissue similar to lymph nodes or glands found in neck groin and armpits
2 masses on back of throat
high in throat behind nose and roof of mouth soft palate noet visiblwe without spewciaql instruments
unususal for tonsils to touch or meet without protrusion of tongue
when tonsils meet in midline or overlap
called kissing tonsils
tonsils and adenoids are near
entrance to breathing passages catch incoming germs which cause infections sample bactereia and viruses and can become infected
scientists believe
they work as part of body's immune system by filtering germs attempt to invade body aend help develop antibodies to germs
most common problems affecting tonsils and adewnoids
recurrent infections throaet or ear significant enlargement or obstrucion causes breathing and swallowing problems
aebscesses around tonsils chronic tonsillitis and infewctions of small pockets within tonsils produce
foul-smelling cheese-like formationsaffect tonsils and adenoids sore swollen
are rare but can grow on tonsils
2 common surgeries to relieve problems
tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy
inflammation of nasal mucous membrane
symptoms rhinitis
sneezing runny itchy nose caused by irritation and congestion in nose
2 types rhinitis
allergic non-allergic
allergic rhinitis
immune system over-responds to specific non-infecious particles plant pollens molds dust mites animal hair idustrial chemicals foods meds insect venom
during allergic attack
antibodies immunoglobulin E lgE attach to mast cells releases histamine in lungs skin and mucous membranes
once lgE connects with mast cells
number of chems released histamine opens blood vessels and causes skin redness and swollen membranes sneezing and congestion result
seasonal allergic rhinitis
hayfever ocuurs in late siummere or spring hypersensitivity ragweed not hay primary cause
75 percent americans
tree pollen symptoms in late March or early April
mold spores occurs in Octobere and November falling leaves
perennial allergic rhinitis
year-round sensitivity to pet hair mold on wallpapere houseplants carpeting upholstery auto engine emissiions aggravate allergic rhiniteis
bacteria Staphylococcus aureus
in nasal passages of patients year round allergic rhinits may lead to higher bacterial levels creating condition worsens allergies
if facial pain or greenish yellow nasal dischcarge occurs
qualified ear nose throat specialist probide appropriate sinusitis treatment
non-allergic rhinitis
no presence of lgE not allergic reaction
triggered by cigarette smoke other pollutants strong odors alcoholic bevs and cold blockages in nose deviated septum infections over use of meds decongestants
sinusitis often preceded by
rhinitis nasal obstruction discharge and loss of smell both CT scan mucosal lining of nose and sinuses simultaneously involved in common cold
catalyst relating two disorders
nasal sinus overflow obstruction bacterial colonization infection acute recurrent chronic sinusitis
acute respiratory distress syndrome ARDS ***
malfunction of lungs inujury small air sacs or alveoli surrounding capillaries blood and fluid leak into spaces between air sacs breathing difficulties result of disease directly or indirectly injures lungs
allergy ***
immune system response to contact with substance
asbestosis &***
pulmonary fibrosis years of exposure to asbestos fibers
cugh sputum weight loss
lung cancer smokes
90 times more than non-asbestos non smoking
asthma ****
chronic lung condition difficulty in breathin extra sensitive airways narrowing or obstructing when irritated
rare condition affects lungss broncial tubes become enlarged forming pockets infection gather cilia destroyed bacteria accumulate
lung cancer ***
85 percent to smoking





chronic bronchitis
inflammation of bronchi excessive mucous production swelling of brochial walls
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD ***
number of lung disorders difficult to move eair into and dout of lungs lungs inflamed obstructed combo of chronic bronchitis and emphysema
common cold
viral infection of nose eyes and upper respiratory tract over 100
emphysema ***
destruction of walls of air sacs of lung
farmer's lung ***
disease moldy hay tiny mold spores
hantavirus disease ***
rare potentially fatal deer mice inhale airborne particles saliva excretions flu like fluid builds up in lungs
hayfever ***
allergy to pollen grass
histoplasmosis ***
considered fatal fungus mold plant life float in air takes root like a seed
inflammation of pleura fluid contents increase
pneumonia ***
inflammation or infection in lungs pus mucus other liquid oxygen cannot reach blood
pneumothorax ***
collection of air between outside surface of lung and inside surgace of chest wall
pulmonary embolus***
blockage of artery in lungs by fat air tumor blood clot
pulmonary fibrosis***
abnormal formation of biberlike scar tissue lung tissues thicken become stiff
nodular inflammation lungs lymph nodes eyes skin liver and spleen
severe acute respiratory syndrome SARS****
fever higher 38 degrees celsius
sleep apnea****
cessation of breathing 10 seconds or more 5 times per hour of sleep
spontaneous pneumothorax****
collection of air or gas in chest lung collapse occurs at rest
sudden infant death syndroms SIDS****
crib death cot death no apparent reason
tuberculosis TB
bacterial infecion 80% of time in lungs bacteria mycobacteria
whooping cough
infection of lung caused by certain type of germ
arterial blood gas ABG
from artery test measures amounts of oxygen carbon dioxide in blood acidity pH
removal of adenoids

pharyngeal tonsils
draw in or out using suction
auscultation ****
listen to sounds of body during physical steth
listen to heart of unborn infants
diagnostic tube tiny camera on end through nose or mouth into lungs
chest x-ray****
chest lungs heart large arteries ribs diaphragm
CT scan****
body imaging xray detection device rotate around patient
endotracheal intubation***
tube into trachea provide open airway gaseous meds oxygen or anesthetics
exam of interior of larynx boice bo
lung needle biopsy***
transthoracic needle aspiration percutaneous needle aspiration test of lung tissue
lighted intrument inserted through neck incision examine top of chest cavity lymph nodes
tapping body parts during physical with fingers hands small instruments
pulmonary angiography****
x-rays of blood vessels in lungs contrast material injected in arteries
pulmonary function tests****
many tests measure how well lungs take in and exhale air
lung volume measurement
cannot inhale normal volume of air
DLCO testing diffusion capacity
esstimate efficiently lungs transfere oxygen from air into blood stream
operation correct deformity of nasal septum
submucou resection of septum SMR
measures how well lungs exhale
sputum evaluation****
also KOH test or fungal smear detects presence of fuongal microorganisms in sputum
procedure to remove fluid from space between lining of outside of lungs PLEURA
accumulation of excess fluied between layers of pleura
pleural effusion
lung tissuse removal
lung biopsy
surgically opening through neck into trachea windpipe allow removal of secretions from lungs
verntilation perfusion scan
VQ scan
nuclear scan test using inhaled injected radioactive material measure breathing circulation perusion in all areas of lungs
perfusion scan
injecting radioactive albumin into vein immediately placed on movable table positioned under arm of scanner
ventilation scan
scanning lungs while having person inhale radioactive gas mask placed over nose and mouth asked to breathe gas while sitting or lying on table beneath arm of scanner
aesthetic nasal surgery refines shape of nose
nasal surgery
cosmetic purposes improve both form and function
alleviate cure nasal breathing problems
correct deformities from birth or injury
diuretic blood pressure meds
dryness in nose throat
anti-anxiety meds
drying effect on nose and throat
birth control pills blood pressure meds beta blockeers viagra
nasal congestion
agravate nasal symptoms
anti-inflammatory prescription nasal spray
all types of nose and sinus inflammation spray to side of nose
relieve sneeqing itching and runny nose none on nasal congestion
unclog stopped up noses
dry mouth nervousness and insomnia
Afrin Dristan Sinex
pseudoephedrine Drixoral Sudafed
albuterol Proventil
terbutaline Brethaire
theophylline Theo-Dur
epinephrine Adrenalin
beclomethasone Beclovent Vanceril
dexamethassone Decadron
triamicinolone Azmacort
Misc ENT drugs
Chloraseptic Topical ansethetic throat spray
cocaine topical vasoconstricdtor ENT exams operations on nose
silver nitrate cauterizing agent applied with applicatior stick cauterize superficial blood vessels causing nosebleeds

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