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AP psychology


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when is research valid?
when it measures what the researcher wanted to measure
when is research reliable?
when it can be replicated
after you name the variables in a hypothesis, you must _____ them
if clarence scored a 72 on a test with a mean of 80 and a standard deviation of 8, his z score would be what?
John Watson
Psychology from the Standpoint of a Behaviorist
only external stimuli
B.F. Skinner
included reinforcement--environmental stimuli that encourage or discourage responses
Max Wertheimer
Gestalt psychology
(total experience)
roots, stretch out from the cell body
cell body
nucleus and other parts of the cell
end in terminal buttons that extend from cell body
myelin sheath
fatty covering around the axon that speeds neural impulses
terminal buttons
at the end of the axon, contain neurotransmitters
fit like a key in a lock
the space between the terminal buttons of one neuron and the dendrites of the next
in a resting state, a neuron has an overall slightly ____ charge
action potential
the electric message firing... neuron A releases neurotransmitters to the synapse, and fit into neuron B's receptor sites...if enough are received, the cell membrane becomes permeable and positive ions can enter
function: motor movement
lack of ACT leads to Alzheimer's
function: motor movement and alertness
lack of: Parkinson's disease
overabundance: schizophrenia
function: pain control
funtion: mood control
lack of: clinical depression
afferent neurons
aka sensory neurons
take info from the senses to the brain
take messages from brain/spinal cord and send them elsewhere in the brain or to efferent neurons
efferent neurons
info from the brain to the rest of the body
(there are a lot of categories)
peripheral nervous system
all nerves not encased in bone
central nervous system
brain and spinal cord
WITHIN BONE (skull and vertebrae)
somatic nervous system
voluntary muscle movements
autonomic nervous system
automatic functions of our body
sympathetic nervous system
in autonomic n.s.
mobilizes our body to respond to stress
carries messages to the control systems of the organs
parasympathetic nervous system
slowing down our body after a stress response
detects brain waves
used in sleep research
CAT scan
sophisticated Xray
structure of the brain
for tumors, etc.
uses magnetic fields to measure the density and location of brain material
not exposed to radiation
only info. about structure
let's researchers see what areas of the brain are most active during certain tasks
measures how much of a chemical parts of the brain are using
can show details of brain structure with info. about blood flow to brain
parts of hindbrain
medulla, pons, cerebellum
control of blood pressure, heart rate, and breathing

above the spinal cord
connects hindbrain with midbrain and forebrain

controls facial expression
fine muscle movements
parts of midbrain
integrates sensory info. and muscle movements

reticular formation--netlike collection of cells that controls body arousal and ability to focus attention
parts of forebrain
thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala and hippocampus
receives sensory signals coming up spinal cord and sending them to areas of the forebrain
metabolic fxns--ex: body temperature, sexual arousal, hunger, thirst, endocrine system
amygdala-near the end of each hippocampal arm

memories are processed and sent to other locations in the cerebral cortex
left hemisphere
sensory messages and controls motor fuction of the right half

logic and sequential tasts
right hemisphere
sensory messages and controls the motor funtion of the left 1/2 of body

spatial and creative tasks
frontal lobes
abstract thought and emotional control

left hemisphere: language
parietal lobes
sensory cortex, receives incoming touch sensations
occipital lobes
furthest from eyes

interprets messages from our eyes
temporal lobes
processes sounds
turner's syndrome
only 1 x-chromosome
shortness, webbed necks
klinefelter's syndrome
minimal sexual development
extreme introversion
down's syndrome
extra chromosome on 21st pair
rounded face, short fingers and toes, mental retardation
smallest units of sound
english has 44
smallest unit of meaningful sound
a rule that guarantees the right solution by usign a formula or other foolproof method
a rule of thumb that's generally true that we can use to make a judgement in a situation
yerkes-dodson law
must perform best with the optimum level of arousal

we can perform best on an easy task with a high level of arousal, but the same high level would prevent us from performing well on a difficult task
maslow's hierarchy of needs
physiological needs
safety needs
belongingness and love needs
esteem needs
garcia effect
our perception of certain foods
James Lange theory
we feel emotion because of the biological changes caused by stress
Cannon-Bard theory
biological change and the cognitive awareness of the emotional state occur simultaneously
two-factor theory
physical responses and our cognitive labels combine to cause a particular emotional response
alarm reaction
heart rate increases, blood rushes to part of body that's going crazy
body is always physiologically ready
parasympathetic n.s. returns our body to normal

more vulnerable to disease in this stage
authoritarian parenting
strict standards for behavior and apply punshements
obedient attitudes are valued more than discussions about the rationale behind the standards
Permissive parents
no clear guidelines
rules arent consistently enforced
authoritative parents
set, consistent standards, but the standards are reasonable and explained
rationale for rules are discussed
it's all about me
pleasure principle
central traits
traits most important in describing that individual
sheldon's somatotype theory
3 body types-endomorphs (fat), mesopmorphs (muscular), ectomorphs (thin)
reciprocal determinism
things reinforce each other
Carl Rogers' self theory
unconditional positive regard
minnesoty multiphasic personality inventory
most widely used self-report instrument
projective tests
interpret ambiguous stimuli
ex: inkblot test, TAT (pics on cards)
charles spearmen
intelligence can be expressed by a single factor (g)
used factor analysis
LL thurstone and JP guilford
thurstone-intelligence is comprised of 7 main abilities

guilford-100 different mental abilities
multiple inelligences
daniel goleman
emotional intelligence
crresponds to Gardner's interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligence
Robert Sternberg
triarchic theory
1. componential/analytic intelligence--school learning
2. experiential intelligence-ability to use knowledge in new and creative ways
3. street smarts
mental/chronological age x 100
flynn effect
performance on intel. test has been increasing steadily throughout the past century

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