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PSY Chapter 5: Perceptions of Self & Others


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is an organized collection of beliefs about the self
Possible selves
refer to one's conceptions about the kind of person one might become in the future
the mismatching of self-perceptions; actual self vs the ideal self
Social comparison theory
proposes that individuals compare themselves with other in order to assess their abilities and opinions (ie how attractive they are, how they did on the history exam etc)
Reference group
is a set of people against whom individuals compare themselves (ie the history test, the reference group is the entire class)
Individualism (independent)
involves putting personal goals ahead of group goals and defining one's identity in terms of person attributes rather than group members.
Collectivism (interdependent)
involves putting group goals ahead of personal goals and defining one's identity in terms of the groups one belongs to.
refers to one's overall assessment of one's worth as a person; it is the evaluative component of the self-concept
Roy Baumeister
Self-esteem means "self-concept confusion". Individuals with low self-esteem simply don't know themselves well enough to strongly endorse many personal attributes on self-esteem tests
the tendency to regard oneslf as grandiosely self-important
are inferences that people draw about the causes of their own behavior
automatic processing (mindlessness)
default mode of handling information (shower, drink coffee, check email...things you do without much thought_
controlled processing (mindfulness)
when important decisions arise or when you're trying to understand something like why you didn't get the job that you wanted.
Internal attributions
ascribe the causes of behavior to personal dispositions, traits, abilities and feelings
External attributions
ascribe the causes of behavior to situational demands and environmental causes
Stable internal
a sense of humor and intelligence
Stable external
include laws and rules (speed limits, no smoking areas)
Unstable internal
mood (good or bad) and motivation (strong or weak)
Unstable external
weather and the presense or absence of people
Attributional style
refers to the tendeny to use similar casual explanations for a wide variety of events in one's life. (either optimistic explanatory style or pessimistic explanatory style)
Accuracy motive
is reflected in people's desire for truthful information about themselves
Consistency motive
drives people toward information that matches what they already know about themselves
Self-verification theory
people prefer to receive feedback from others that is consistent with their own self-views. (those with a positive image prefer to hear positive feedback)
the tendency to maintain positive feelings about the self.
Downward social comparison
the defensive tendency to compare oneself with someone whose troubles are more seroius that one's own
self-serving bias
the tendency to attribute one's successes to personal factors and one'sf ailures to situational factors
Basking in reflected glory
the tendency to enhance one's image by publicly announcing one's association with those who are successful (CORFing is similar..cutting off reflected failure)
the tendency to sabotage one's performance to provide an excuse for possible failure
the work of directing and controlling one's behavior
Self-efficacy (Albert Bandura)
people's conviction that they can achieve specific goals. According to Bandura, efficacy beliefs vary according to the person's skills. You may have high self-efficacy when it comes to making friends but low self-efficacy when it comes to speaking in public.
Developing self-efficacy
Matery experiences (mastering new skills), Vicarious experiences (watching others perform a skill you want to learn), Persuasion and encouragement (through the encouragement of others), Interpretation of emotional arousal (the interpretation of the responses you give from certain events)
Self-deflating behaviors
are seemingly intentional actions that thwart a person's self interest (deliberate self-destruction, tradeoffs, counterproductive strategies)
Public self
an image presented to others in social interactions
Impression management
refers to usually conscious efforts by people to influence how others think of them
is behaving in ways to make onself likable to others (ie giving compliments, doing favors etc)
Self-monitoring (Mark Snyder)
refers to the degree to which people attende to and control the impressions they make on others
Which of the following statements about the self-concept is false?
A) It is composted of one dominant belief about the self
b) It is composed of many self-beliefs
c) It is relatively stable over time
d) It influences present as well as future behavior
Mismatches between one's actual and ought selves result in lower self-esteem and:
a) dejection-related feelings
B) agitation-related feelings
c) feelings of self-enhancement
d) No particular feelings
A person reared in a collectivist culture is like to have a(n) _____self-view, whereas a person reared in an individualistic culture is likely to have a(n) ____ self view.
interdependent, independent
Low self-esteem is associated with:
self-concept confusion
Agression in response to self-esteem threats is more likey to occur in people who are:
Which of the following is not a basic principle of self-perception?
A) People are "cognitive spenders"
b) People's explanatory style is related to adjustment
c) People prefer to receive information that is consistent with their self-views.
d) Pople want to maintain positive feellings about the self
Keisha is upset when a textbook is stolen, but she feels better after she hears that a classmate's book bag, including her cell phone, was stolen. This is an example of:
downward comparison
Which of the following statements about self-efficacy is true?
A) It can be developed by persevering through failure util one achieves success
b) It is something that one is born with
c) It refers to a person's general self-confidence
d) It refers to conscious efforts to make a certain impression on others.
The self-presentation strategy of ingratiation involves trying to make others:
like you.
Which of the following will not help you bild high self-esteem?
Comparing yourself with those who are the best in a given area.

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