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Anatomy and Physiology ~ Unit 6! Sections 1-2


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the study of the form and structure of an organism
the study of the processes of living organisms
the study of how disease occurs and the responses of living organisms to disease processes
thick, viscous substance that is the basic substance of all life
the basic structure and function in all living things; composed of protoplasm
Cell membrane
the outer protective covering of a cell; semipermeable
semi-fluid inside cell; ontains water, proteins, lipids, carbs, minerals, salts; the site for allchemical reactions that take place in the cell
cell structures that help a cell to function; located in cytoplasm; main organelles are nucleus, mitochondria, ribosomes, lysosomes, etc.
mass in cytoplams; "brain" of the cell; controls activites and is important in cell division
inside nucleus; manufactures ribosomes (RNA and proteins)
in nucleus; made of DNA and protein; during cell reproduction, it condenses to form chromosomes
in cytoplasm near nucleus; contains 2 centrioles; during mitosis, they separate
rod-shaped organelles located throughout cytoplasm; "furnaces" or cell b/c they break down carbs, proteins, & fats to produce ATP (energy source)
Golgi Apparatus
stack of membrane layers located in cytoplam; produces, stores, and packages; puts "finishing touches" on proteins that will now be shipped throughout cell
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
fine network of tubular structures in cytoplams; allows transportation of things in and out of nucleus, and helps with storage of proteins
oval/round bodies in cytoplasm; digest and destroy old cells, bacteria, etc. & helps immune system
Pinocytic vesicles
pocketlike folds in membrane; allow large molecules like proteins and fats to enter cell, then they fold to form vacuoles
not enough tissue fluid/too much tissue fluis
two or more tissues joined together to perform a specific function
organs and other body parts joined together to perform a particular function
cells of the same type join together for a common purpose
Epithelial tissue
covers the surface of the body and is main tissue in skin; forms lining of intestinal, respiratory, and urinary tracts and others; forms glands and specilizes to produce specific secretions for the body
Connective tissue
supporting fabric of organs
Soft: insulates, food reserve, padding, holds things together
Hard: includes cartilage and bone
Nerve tissue
made up of special cells called neurons; transmits messages throughout body and composes nerves, brain, and spinal cord
Muscle tissue
produces power and movement by contraction of muscle fibers; skeletal, cardiac, and visceral (smoothe)
System that protects body from injury, infection, & dehydration; helps regulate body temp; eliminates some wastes; produces vitamin D
Integumentary System
System that creates framework of body, protects internal organs, produces blood cells, and acts as levers for muscles.
Skeletal System
System that produces movement, protects internal organs, produces body heat, and maintains posture.
Muscular System
System that coordinates and controls body activities.
Nervous system
System that allows body to react to environment by providing sight, hearing, taste, smell, etc.
Special Senses System
System that carries oxygen and nutrients to body cells, carries waste products away from cells, and helps produce cells to fight infection.
Circulatory system
System that carries some tissue fluid and wastes to blood, assists with fighting infection.
Lymphatic system
System that breathes in oxygen and eliminates carbon dioxide.
Respiratory system
System that digests food physically and chemically, transports food, absorbs nutriends, and eliminates wastes.
Digestive system
System that filters blood to maintain fluid and electrolyte balance in the body, produces and eliminates urine.
Urinary system
System that produces and secretes hormones to regulate body processes.
Endocrine system
System that reproduces human beings.
Reproductive system
Imaginary lines drawn through the body at various parts to separate the body into sections.
Body planes
horizontal plane that divides the body into a top half and a bottom half.
transverse plane
body parts above other parts.
Body parts below other parts
body parts located near the head
Body parts located near the sacral region of the spinal column (tail)
Divides the body into right and left sides
Midsagittal (median) plane
Body parts close to the midline, or plane.
Body parts away from the midline
Divides the body into a front section and a back section.
Frontal (coronal) plane
Body parts in front of the plane or on the front of the body
Ventral, anterior
Body parts on the back of the body
Dorsal, posterior
Body parts close to the point of refrence
Body parts distant from the point of refrence
spaces within the body that contain vital organs
Body cavities
Long, continuous cavity located on teh back of the body
Dorsal cavity
Part of the dorsal cavity that contains the brain
Cranial cavity
Part of the dorsal cavity that contains the spinal cord
Spinal cavity
Separated into two distinct cavities by the dome-shaped muscle (diaphragm); larger than the dorsal cavities
ventral cavities
Located in the chest and contains the exophagus, trachea, bronchi, lungs, heart, and large blood vessels
thoracic cavity
Divided into an upper part and lower part
Upper: stomach, small intestine, most of large intesting, appendix, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen
Abdominal cavity
Lower part of abdominal cavity; contains urinary bladder, reproductive organs, and last part of large intestine
Pelvic cavity
Small cavity for the eyes
Orbital cavity
Small cavity for the nose structures
Nasal cavity
Small cavity for teeth and tongue
Buccal cavity

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