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RNA Viruses


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How many RNA viruses are there?
19 (some are categories)
What are the first ten of the 19 RNA viruses?
1. Influenza
2. Parainfluenza
3. Human Metapneumovirus
4. Measles
5. Mumps
6. Nipah/Hendra
7. Respiratory Syncytial Virus 8. Rabies
9. Coronaviruses
What are the last 9?
11. Arbovirus
12. Retroviruses
13. Rhinovirus
14. Enteroviruses
15. Hepatitis
16. Norovirus
17. Rotavirus
18. Hantavirus
19. Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses
What are 2 Influenza viruses types, which is worse?
A and B; A is worse.
When is the peak flu season? When should you get a shot?
Peak = november/december
Get a shot in fall.
-What causes normal changes in influenza virus from year to yr?

-What causes flu pandemics?
Antigen drift

Antigen shift
What 4 symptoms does Parainfluenza virus cause?
1. Croup (primarily)
2. Colds
3. Bronchitis
4. Pneumonia
What 2 symptoms does Human Metapneumovirus cause?
1. Croup
2. Pneumonia
What's Mumps and another name for it?
A Childhood disease - inflammtn of the parotid gland.
-Aka, Parotitis.
What is Rubeola?
MEASLES - aka red measles
What was the main reason for developing the Mumps vaccine?
Males in post-puberty get ortitis (inflam testicles) and become sterile.
What are 3 symptoms seen in Measles?
1. Koplik's blu-white oral spots
2. Maculopapillar rash
3. Fever/sick for 7 days
What was the main reason for developing the measles vaccine?
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis - seen in 1 of
1 million cases, develops 4-17 yrs after infection.
Where is the Nipah virus found?
-How is it contracted?
-What is its main symptom?
Southeast Asia
-From pigs
Where is the Hendra virus found?
-How is it contracted?
-What is its main symptom?
-Flying fox bats, then horses.
-Severe respiratory illness.
What is RSV? What does it cause?
Respiratory Synctial virus - the major cuase of lower respiratory tract infections in 1-5 yr olds!
What are 2 symptoms from RSV?
What season does RSV pop up in?
What are 4 symptoms of Rabies virus?
1. Acute encephalmyelitis
2. Convulsions
3. Hydrophobia
4. Negri bodies in brain cells
What 2 diseases do Coronaviruses cause?
1. Common cold
2. Severe Acute Resp. Synd SARS
What animal did SARS originate from? What is especially bad about the disease?
-Civet cat
-Can transmit person-to-person.
What virus causes German measles?
For what reason was a Rubella vaccine developed?
Congenital rubella - very harmful effects on developing fetus.
What 3 abnormalities are seen in congenital rubella?
1. Cataracts
2. Deafness
3. Microencephaly
What are Arboviruses according to their name? What transmits them?
ARthropod BOrne viruses - by mosquitos mostly.
What 2 types of diseases do Arboviruses cause?
1. Encephalitis
2. Hemorrhagic fevers
What are the 7 Encephalitic Arboviruses?
1. Colorado tick fever
2. Western equine encephalitis
3. Eastern equine encephalitis
4. CA encephalitis
5. St. Louis enceph
6. LaCrosse enceph
7. West Nile Virus WNV
Which Arbovirus is the most concerning?
St. Louis
What did WNV originate from?
What are the 2 Hemorrhagic Arboviruses?
1. Yellow fever (stopped the panama canal from being built)
2. Dengue fever
With what 2 Retroviruses are we mostly concerned?
1. HIV
2. Human Tcell Leukemia Virus
what 3 infns does HTLV-1 cause?
1. Adult Tcell leukemia
2. Lymphosarcoma
3. Tropical Spastic Paraparesis
What does HTLV-2 cause?
Hairy cell leukemia
What does Rhinovirus cause?
The common cold
Why are the enteroviruses called that?
They ENTER through the intestine; but they are not intestinal symptomologies.
What are the 4 Enteroviruses?
1. Polio virus
2. Coxsackie virus
3. Echovirus
4. Hepatitis A
What does Coxsackie virus cause?
Hand-foot-mouth disease
What does ECHO stand for?
Enteric Cytopathogenic Human Orphan
Which hepatitis viruses are RNA?
Which are DNA?

What virus caused an outbreak of gastroenteritis on cruise ships in 2002?
Norovirus (Norwalk agent)
What is the most common cause of pediatric diarrhea in the US?
What carries the Hantavirus? How is it transmitted to humans?
Deer mouse carries it; sheds the hantavirus in droppings; they dry, aerate, humans breathe.
What are the 3 Hemorrhagic fever viruses?
1. Ebola
2. Lassa
3. Marburg
Why are the hemorrhagic fever viruses so concerning?
They are VERY infectious by blood from intestines, eyes, or anything.
Which hemorrhagic virus currently is undergoing an outbreak, where?
Marburg virus in Angola - has close to 100% mortality rate!

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