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AP Chemistry Solutions


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m = moles of solutes/ kilograms of solvent
mole fraction
X = moles of substance/ total moles in solution
Van't Hoff Factor
i= how many ions one unit of a substance will dissociate into in a solution
Boiling point elevation
delta T = i(Kb)m

Kb= boiling point elevation constant
m= molality
Freezing point depression
delta T = i(Kf)m

Kf= freezing point depression constant
m= molality
Raoult's law (vapor pressure lowering)
P = XP^o
P= vapor pressure of soln
P^o = vapor pressure of pure solvent
X = mole fraction of pure solvent
Osmotic Pressure eqn
lambda = (nRT/V)i = MRTi
R= .08201 Latm/molK
M= molarity= n/V
Solubility rule: Alkali Metals
Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cs+
are all soluble
Solubility rule: All ammonium salts, NH4+
are soluble
Solubility rule: Alkaline Earths and Transition metals
depends on identity of atom
Solubility rule: Nitrate, NO3-
Solubility rule:Acetate, C2H3O2-
Solubility rule: Cl-, Br-, I-
soluble except Ag+, Pb2+, Hg2+2
Solubility rule: Sulfate, (SO4)2-
soluble, Except Ag+, Pb2+, Hg2+2, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+
Solubility rule: Hydroxide, OH-
insoluble, except w/ alkali metals, Ca2+, Sr2+, and Ba2+
Solubility rule: Carbonate, (CO3)2-
insoluble except w/ alkali metals and ammonium
Solubility rule: Phosphate, (PO4)3-
Insoluble except w/ alkali metals and ammonium
Solubility rule:Sulfite, (SO3)2-
insoluble except w/ alkali metals and ammonium
Solubility rule: Sulfide, S2-
insoluble except w/ alkali metals, alkaline earths, ammonium.
At lower temp, gas will be....soluble
At higher pressure, gas will be....soluble

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