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AP Chemistry Acids and Bases


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Definition of acid/base: Arrhenius
acid=ionizes in water and produce H+
HCl -> H+ + Cl-
base=ionizes in water and produce OH-
NaOH -> Na+ + OH-
Definition of acid/base: Bronsted-Lowry
acid= donate a proton (H+)
base= accepting a proton
NH3 + H2O <-> NH4+ + OH-
NH3 and OH- are bases
H2O and NH4+ are acids
Definition of acid/base: Lewis
acid= electron pair acceptor
base= electron pair donor
Exclusively lewis acid-base:
NH3 + BCl3 -> H3NBCl3
NH3 base, BCl3 acid.
Increasing pH means decreasing
Strong acids?
HCl, HBr, HI, HNO3, HClO4, H2SO4
Strong Bases
LiOH, NaOH, KOH, Ba(OH)2, Sr(OH)2
K constant for strong acid/bases?
does not exist since they dissociate completely
With an oxoacid like HClOx which would be stronger acid...HClO3 or HClO2
HClO3 since there are more O atoms attached to central atom, weakening the attraction the central atom has for the H+
The salt...NaCl..acidic, neutral or basic?
The salt...NH4Cl..acidic, neutral or basic?
The salt...NaC2H3O2..acidic, neutral or basic?
conjugates of strong base/acid...what will happen in water?
weak and unreactive
Weak base, weak acid salt, pH?
depend on relative strengths of conjugate acid and base of the specific ions in the salt
Properties of buffers...
-pH remains unchanged if diluted or concentrated
-weak acid/base with its conjugate
Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation
pH = pKa - log [Acid]/[base]
Polyprotic acids
more willing to give up first H3PO4 is stronger acid than H2PO4-
act as acid or base
combine with water to form acid (formed by oxides of nonmetals) or base (formed by oxides of metals)

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