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Ch. 23 History


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Fidel Castro
Cuban leader who allied himself with the Soviet Union
Missile gap
The United States lagged behind the Soviets in weaponry.
1. Which of the following characterized Congress during the Kennedy years?

a. The Republicans were in the majority in both houses of Congress.
b. The Democrats in Congress were indebted to Kennedy for helping them get ele
c. Many members of Congress viewed Kennedy’s New Frontier as too big and costly.
2. To stimulate the lagging economy, Kennedy used all of the following EXCEPT __________.

a. supply-side economics
b. deficit spending
c. strategies to increase business production and efficiency
d. tax hike
d. tax hikes
3. The Warren Court reforms changed society in all of the following ways EXCEPT by __________.

a. boosting the political power of African Americans and Hispanics by forcing reapportionment of electoral districts
b. ensuri
d. expanding the power of law enforcement agencies
5. President Kennedy planned for a flexible response to war by __________.

a. building up conventional troops and weapons
b. stockpiling nuclear weapons
c. being prepared to employ Eisenhower’s style of brinkmans
a. building up conventional troops and weapons
6. What motivated President Kennedy to send aid to Latin America?

a. He hoped to develop an enduring humanitarian legacy.
b. He hoped that a prosperous Latin America would be less likely to support Communist-inspired revo
b. He hoped that a prosperous Latin America would be less likely to support Communist-inspired revolutions.
7. Which had the GREATEST influence on President Kennedy’s decision to fund the space program?

a. his interest in developing military computers
b. his interest in the last frontier
c. his interest in winning the
c. his interest in winning the Cold War
Engel vs. Vitale
State-mandated prayer in school banned
8. President Johnson drew inspiration for his Great Society from all the following EXCEPT __________.

a. his personal experience with poverty
b. the goals of the civil rights movement
c. Franklin Roosevelt’s New
d. Harry Truman’s Fair Deal
Miranda vs. Arizona
Police must inform suspects of their rights during the arrest process
New York Times vs. Sullivan
Celebrities may sue the media for libel only in certain circumstances
Brown vs. Board of Education
Segregation in public schools unconstitutional
Baker vs. Carr
Established that federal courts can hear lawsuits seeking to force state authorities to redraw electoral districts
Reynolds vs. Sims
State legislative districts should be equal in population
Heart of Atlanta Motel vs. United States
Desegregation of public accommodations established in the Civil Rights Act of 1964 is legal
Loving vs. Virginia
States may not ban interracial marriage
Mapp vs. Ohio
Unlawfully seized evidence is inadmissible at trial
Gideon vs. Wainwright
Suspects are entitled to court-appointed attorney if unable to afford one on their own
Escobedo vs. Illinois
Accused has the right to an attorney during police questioning
9. Which of the following Great Society initiatives funded a preschool program for the disadvantaged?

a. Medicaid
b. Project Head Start
c. Child Nutrition Act
d. The Elementary and Secondary Education Act
b. Project Head Start
10. Which of the following is a TRUE statement about President Johnson’s Great Society?

a. The Great Society’s programs were widely successful, and many continue today.
b. Management problems and inadequate funding ha
b. Management problems and inadequate funding hampered the success of the Great Society.
What was scrutinized most about Kennedy?
He was a catholic
The New Frontier
Kennedy's legislative agenda to increase aid to education, provide health insurance, create a Department of Urban Affairs, and help migrant workers.
Earl Warren
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court under Kennedy's presidency
Richard Nixon
Ran against Kennedy in the election of 1960.
Esther Peterson
appointed by Kennedy to the position of assistant secretary of labor and director of the Women's Bureau of the Department of Labor
Due Process
Laws may not treat individuals unfairly, arbitrarily, or unreasonable, and courts must follow proper procedures when trying cases
the way in which states draw up political districts based on changes in population
Flexible response
The response the United States would take if the Soviets invaded a country and that country needed help against them.
Peace Corps
Organization that sent young Americans to perform humanitarian services in other povertous countries
Space Race
The contest between America and the USSR to gain control of outer space
Berlin Wall
Divided the city of Berlin into halves; the Communist east side and the Capitalist west side
Warren Commission
Investigated possible theories of a conspiracy of Kennedy's assassination
Lee Harvey Oswald
Accused of killing Kennedy
Jack Ruby
Shot Lee Harvey Oswald
War on Poverty
the antipoverty program under Lyndon Johnson
The Great Society
Lyndon Johnson's vision of a better society the United States should become
a general agreement
Volunteers in Service to America, domestic Peace Corps
Health benefits program for elderly and disabled people
Health benefits program for low income families
Head Start
Program directed at disadvantaged children
Robert Weaver
First African American to serve in a cabinet, first secretary of the Department of Housing and Urban Development, 1965 under Lyndon Johnson
Upward Bound
Provided college preparation for low income families
Barry Goldwater
Johnson's Republican opponent in the 1964 election, from Arizona
Hubert Humphrey
Johnson's vice president
Which of Kennedy's policies were defeated by Congress?
Health insurance for the elderly, Department of Urban Affairs, Federal aid to Education
In which area were most of Kennedy's victories in Congress?
Improving the nation's economy
Where did Kennedy invest more funds?
Defense and Space Exploration
What was Congress' concern about Kennedy lowering taxes
It would cause inflation
Two programs supported by Congress which provided funds to poor areas and their outcome
Area Redevelopment Act and Housing Act. These cleared slums, created jobs, built low-income housing
Presidential Commission on the Status of Women
Called for federal action against gender discriminatio and affirmed the right of women to equally paid empolyment.
How did Kennedy help women make strides
He appointed women to prominent positions in his administration and advanced women's rights in jobs and pay
Equal Pay Act
Women had to be paid equal to men
What was Kennedy's executive order about women?
Ended gender discrimination in the federal civil service
One man, one vote
The principle which required state legislatures to reapportion electoral districts so that all citizens' votes would have equal weight.
How did one man, one vote change political power in America?
Shifted power from rural (conservative) areas to urban (liberal) areas, and boosted African American and Hispanic power, who lived in the cities
Special Forces
a small army unit created in the 1950s to wage guerrilla warefare in limited conflicts.
Why did the United States get involved in Latin American countries?
To help existing governments stay in power in order to prevent Communist movements from flourishing
Alliance for Progress
Cooperative aid projects with Latin American governments, designed to make Latin America free and prosperous and less likely to become communist
Fulgencio Batista
Castro overthrew him in 1959
Nikita Khrushchev
Soviet Premier
What did Eisenhower do in response to Cuba establishing ties with the Soviet Union?
He authorized the CIA to secretly train Cuban exiles to invade the island to cause an uprising among Cubans
La Brigada
what the Cuban exiles who were trained to invade at the Bay of Pigs were called
What went wrong with the Bay of Pigs invasion
The boats ran aground on coral, the air support was cancelled in order to not expose US involvement, and most of the exiles were captured
Why did Krushchev decide to build the Berlin Wall?
The United States, Great Britain, and France would not withdraw from Berlin or recognize East Germany
Why did the Soviets take their missiles away from Cuba during the Cuban Missile Crisis?
The United States removed their missiles from Turkey near the Soviet border and promised not to invade Cuba
What were the positive effects of the Cuban Missile Crisis?
The US and Soviets were ready to work to lessen world tensions, and even took a step towards arms reductions
What were the negative effects of the Cuban Missile Crisis?
The Soviets' military inferiority was exposed, and Khrushchev fell from power. The Soviets began dramatic arms buildups, which led to the US doing the same thing in the 1980s
Green Berets
symbol of army
Michael Harrington
wrote The Other America
What were some achievements of Lyndon Johnson
26 years as a congressman, congressional staffer, Senate majority leader, vice president
Johnson treatment
The tactics Johnson used to persuade others
Which laws were passed immediately after Johnson took office?
Tax cut, Major civil rights bill, anti-poverty program
Why was Johnson so concerned about the poor?
He had hard times during his childhood, and he taught in a low income area
Child Nutrition Act
Established a school breakfast program and exapanded the school lunch program and milk program to improve poor children's nutrition
Elementary and Secondary Education Act
targeted aid to students and funded related activities such as adult education and education counseling
Higher Education Act
supported college tuition scholarships, student loans, work-study programs for low income families
Project Head Start
funded a preschool program for the disadvantaged
Office of Economic Opportunity
programs to improve life in inner cities
Housing and Urban Development Act
established new housing subsidy programs and made federal loans and public housing grants easier to obtain
Demonstration Cities and Metropolitan Act
helped revitalize urban areas through a variety of social and economic programs
Water Quality Act and Clean Air Acts
supported development of standards and goals for the water and air quality
Highway Safety Act
improved federal, state, local coordination and created training standards for emergency medical technicians
Fair Packaging and Labeling Act
required all comsumer products to have true and informative labels
Neighborhood Youth Corps
provided work-study programs to help underprivileged young men and women earn a higher diploma or degree
Job Corps
helped young unemployed people find jobs
Civil Rights Act of 1964
barred discrimination of many kinds
Voting Rights Act of 1965
ensured African Americans' right to vote
Model Cities
authorized federal subsidies to many cities nationwide which supported many programs in the city
Immigration Reform Act of 1965
Maintained a strict limit on the number of immigrants admitted to the United States each year
What was a negative result of the Great Society programs
Cities, states, and groups eligible for aid began to expect tremendous immediate benefits

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