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Femal Reproductive Physiology (c'tnd)


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What 3 disorders occur in female reproduction?
1. Premenstrual syndrome
2. Hyperprolactinemia
3. Turner's syndrome.
What is PMS in general?
a group of symptoms related to the menstrual cycle.
How is PMS classified?
based on the severity of symptoms:
-Premenstrual tension (light)
-PMDysphoric Disorder (worst)
What is "hyperprolactinemia"?
a tumor of the pituitary lactotrophs - causes increased prolactin production!
what is the effect of increased prolactin?
Prl increase inhibits FSH and LH secretion; therefore no follicle development, menses, and galactose levels areweird.
What's the main problem in Turner's syndrome?
SOME of the cells are missing or have a damaged X chromosome.
What are the results of Turner syndrome?
-Webbed neck
-Short fingers/toes
-Infertile, osteoporosis
How can Turner syndrome be treated?
with growth hormone, estrogen, and progesterone treatments.
Can a turner patient become pregnant?
Yes - with donated oocytes!
When do Estrogen and Progesterone effects dominate: -Proliferative phase or -Secretory Phase?
Estrogen = proliferative

Progesterone = secretory
When in the menstrual cycle does body temp increase?
during the secretory phase; when progesterone is higher.
That's how you know when to be fertilized to get pregnant.
How does Estrogen influence the cervical mucus?
It makes it get increasingly watery, thin, and elastic during the proliferative phase, for maximum ease of sperm movement.
what happens to the cervical mucus during the secretory phase?
It becomes thick and sticky, to impede sperm movement and protect against infection
What makes the mucus become sticky?
Progesterone - during the secretory phase.
When is cilia/smooth muscle most active, and why?
During the proliferative phase; to enhance meeting of egg and sperm.
What changes in the endometrial lining enhance the survival of an embryo?
Glycogen vacuoles are implanted, to provide energy for the baby!
How long can each survive:
-Sperm in uterus
-Ovulated eggs
When should intercourse occur?
Sperm - 4 to 6 days
Eggs - 1 to 2 days

Sex: 5 days before or 1 day after ovulation.
How can you detect if ovulation has occured?
-Urinary LH levels
-Body temp
-Cervix mucus characteristics (stretchable, painful)
How does the egg get from the ovary to the fallopian tube?
Fimbriae sweep it up and put it in.
Where does fertilization occur?
IN the fallopian tube; if it waited for the egg to get to the uterus, it would die cuz it takes 4 days.
how does sperm get into the cervix?

How does it get to fallop tube?
by sheer force of ejaculation.

Flagella/uterine contractions
What has to happen to sperm before they can possibly fertilize an ova?
What is capacitation?
increasing the motility of the sperm with bicarbonate and progesterone.
What is the first step in the acrosome reaction of sperm w/ ova?
Push through Cumulus and bind to receptor proteins in the zona pellucida (the protein around the oocyte).
What happens when sperm bind the receptors in Zona pellucida?
They release enzymes that digest their way into the zona pellucida.
How does fertilization occur?
All the little sperms compete but only the first one through the zona pellucida gets to enter and fertilize.
What 2 mechanisms prevent polyspermy (more than one sperm fertilizing the egg)?
1. The membrane potential of the oocyte changes; inhibits other bindings to the zona pellucida.
2. The egg secretes enzymes that harden and inactivate the receptors for sperm.
when does implantation of the fertilized ovum occur?
six to eight days after fertilization
how do identcal twins develop?
if the embryo seperates into 2 independend cell masses - it should remain ONE, with divisions withinthe one cell mass.
what is the embryo called after it travels down the fallopian tube and gets implanted in the uterus?
what does the blastocyst shed before implantation in the endometrium?
the zona pellucida
what provides the initial nutrition for the embryo?
the endometrium.
what structure provides exchange of nutritents/hormones/growth factors from mom -> baby?
chorionic villi
What hormones are involved in pregnancy?
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin
What is HCG?
similar to LH; maintains the corpus luteum, producd by embryo/placenta.
When in pregnancy are estrogen and progesterone released?
only about 2 months; then corpus luteum regresses
what secretes estradiol/progest when the corpus luteum regresses?
the placenta.
What hormones does the placenta produce during pregnancy?
-human placental lactogen
What is HPL?
hormone released by placenta to stimulate breast growth
What two hormones regulate milk production/secretion

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