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neuro lec 3


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holoprosencephaly (HPE)
- failure of forebrain to separate into two sides
- genes responsible include Sonic hedgehog (signaling) and TF's SIX3 homeobox, ZIC2 zinc-finger, TGIF homeobox
- abnormal spindle gene
- homozygous mutations lead to microchpaly
influences neruon cell number by determining number of percursors and causing them to proliferate
TF that does GABAergic interneurons in cortex
- actin binding protein
- if mutated, no migration initiation so neruoblasts accumulate in ventricular zone
- microtubule associated protein in migrating neurons
- mutations lead to X- linked lissencephaly (double cortex syndrome)
- O-mannosyltransferase 1
- mutations lead to Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS)
- O-mannosylation defects in critical ECM proteins like dystroglycan
reeler mouse
- disorganized, inverted cortex
- when there is a disturbance after migration to CP, so assembly into layers is messed up
layer5 projection
- if this is messed up, agenesis (lesion) of corpus callosum
- can be asymptomoatic or can mess w/ hemesphere integration
- RNA bp that negatvly regulates critical synaptic proteins
- loss of fcn lead to fragile X
- increase spine density, excess of long thing spines
mutations lead to microcephaly and periventricular heterotopia
FAS impairs what
- programmed cell death
- precursor proliferation
- neuronal migration
- post-migratory differentiation
- abnormal frontal lobe, perietal/perisylvian regions
Down syndrome impairs what
- shortened basilar dendrites
- decrease number of spines
- defective cortical layering
autism things that are increased
- neurotropins (BDNF, NT-4)
- neuropeptides (VIP, CGRF)
- reelin
- involved in schizo
- promotes radial migration
- attractants tangentially migrating interneurons
- establishes radial glial cells and -> astrocytes
- promotes oligodendrocyte differentiation
- facilitate neurite outgrowth
- regulates expression and function NMDA, GABA, and ACh receptor subunits
- velocardiofacial syndrome
- heterozygous deletion of 22q11
- increase shcizo indicence
C fibers
unmyelinated - do slow burning pain adn sensitization
Adelta fibers
slightly myelinated - do fast sharp pain right after injury
- relases chemicals that decrease nociceptor threshold
- CNS strength chages (increased nociceptor transmission
- opiods suppressed
where is the grill illustion centered around
anterior cingulate gyrus and insula
Posterior parietal syndrome
damage to posterior parietal lobe, so pt ignores the contralateral side of their body
opioid peptides
- Met-enkephalin
- Leu-enkephalin
- Dynorphins
- Beta-lipotropin (beta-endorphin - stronger than morphine)
a nicotine agonist
ABT-594 is an example
a good pain killer
Damage to S1
- followed by complete contralateral anesthesia
- Gradually, pain and crude touch return, but fine touch usually gone
olfactory pathway
- oderant receptor neurons
- olfactory bulb neurons
- pyriform cotex and amygdala
- mediodorsal nucleus (thalmus) and hypothalmus
taste pathway
- taste cell
- peripheral sensory neuron
- 7th, 9th, 10th nerves
- solitary nucleus (medulla)
- hypothalmus, anygdala, ventral posterion nuclelus (thalmas)
7th nerve in taste
geniculate ganglion, gets tounge
9th nerve in taste
inferior glossophayngeal ganglion, gets tounge
10th nerve in taste
nodose ganglion, gets epiglottis
Na, acid and AA tastes
activate ligand sensitive channels -> depol
bitter and saccharine tastes
activated G-protein -> cAMP or IC Ca release

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