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Anatomy 332 Integumentary System Week 1


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The skin is divided into what regions?
Subcutaneous or Hypodermis
What is the outer region of the skin that is composed of epithelial cells.? There is no blood in this region.
The epidermis
This section is the section of nerves that moves towards the epidermis. It is composed of connective tissue.
The dermis
What is the region of loose areolar connective tissue with varied amounts of fat. This area projects up to the dermis?
Subcutaneous tissue
What is the largest organ of the body?
The epidermis has how many layers?
What 2 things does the epidermis lack?
Blood and nerve supply
What are the 5 layers of the epidermis?
1. Stratum basale (germinativum)
2. Statum spinosum
3. Stratum granulosum
4. Stratum lucidum
5. Stratrum corneum
Where is the stratum basale located? How many cell layers does it have?
This is the bottom layer of the epidermis.
It is 1 cell layer thick, known as the growing layer. Cells are dividing
This part of the epidermis is 10 cell layers thick, it is living, it has distorted cells due to a rapid proliferation of cells from stratum germ
Stratum spinosum
This layer of the epidermis is both living and dead and is up to 5 cell layers thick, degerating cells with a granular appearance under a microscope, cells are filling up with keratin
Stratum granulosum
This layer of the epidermis is dead and is up to 5 cell layers thick, they are clear translucent cells that are only seen in thick skin like the palms and soles of the feet
Stratum lucidum
This layer of the epidermis is dead and is from 20 to 30 cell layers thick, there are 2 to 3 layers in areas like the eyelides and external genitalia, up to 100s of cell layers thick on sole of foot, completely filled with keratin, forms waterproof layer
Stratum corneum
The epidermis sits on what?
The basement membrane (aka) basal lamina
What are the 4 types of cells found in the epidermis?
1. Keratinocytes
2. Melanocytes
3. Langerhans cells
4. Merkel cells
This type of cell makes up 90% of the epidermis. It's function is to fill up the skins cells with keratin
This type of cell makes up 8% of the epidermis, produces pigment called melatonin - each cell feeds 8 to 10 keratinocytes
A brown pigment that they body uses as protection agains UV rays
The type of cell is the honorary white cell that acts like the white cell
This type of cell has honorary nerve endings and is only found on hairless skin
Merkel cell
This part of the layers of skin is the thicker of the 2 regions of the skin and is known as true skin, it is commercially known as leather
The dermis
Type of gland associated with hair follicles, produces sebum, oily substance that helps prevent water loss, not found on hairless areas like palms and soles
Sebaceous glands
Sweat glands approx 2-5 million on body , most on palms and soles
Sudoriferous glands
These type of glands are limited to extgernal genetalia and armpits, produce substances when sexually aroused
Apocrine sweat glands
This type of sweat gland makes up most of the 2 - 5 million sweat glands, excretion keeps the body cool, responds to neural transmitters, mostly on palms and soles
Eccrine sweat glands
Name for modified sweat gland associated with the ear
Ceruminous glands
Name for milk producing sweat glands
Mammary glands
Portion of hair seen above the skin, keratinized skin cells
Hair shaft
Portion of hair below skin surface, same structure as hair shaft
Hair root
Name for tissue around hair root that is producing the hair
Hair follicle
3 things that make up the hair follicle
1. gland
2. muscle
3. nerve supply
Name for expanded lower end of the hair follicle where blood supply enters the growing area of the hair
Bulb of the follicle
Name for area attached to the hair shaft, helps elevate the hair
Arrector pili muscle
Part of nail that you trim
Free edge
The visible portion of the name
Nail body
The proximal portion of the nail covered by skin (can't see it)
Nail root
The fold that surrounds the sides and proximal end of the nail body
Nail fold
Area under nail that attaches the nail to the nail bed
Hyponychium (quick)
Area of stratum corneum that covers the nail root and extends out over the proximal end of the nail body
Eponychum (cuticle)
Area of skin upon which the nail sits
Nail bed
Growth area of nail located around the nail root
Moon part of nail
Anterior opening of the nasal cavity
Anterior nares
Name for the posterior opening of the nasal cavity into the pharynx
Chonchae (posterior nares)
Name for the front of the nose
Hard tissue, bone & cartilage that divides the nose in to right and left
Nasal septum
The name for the other side of the roof of the mouth, the area of the maxillary and palatine bones
Floor of the nose
The narrow area or ceiling area of the nasal cavity
Roof of the nose
Area of the roof of the nose that has holes for passage
Cribriform plate
Name for the projections off of the ethmoid bone
Conchae (turbinates)
List these from smaller to largest areas that come off the ethmoid bone

Superior, Middle, Inferior
Superior - smaller, comes off ethmoid
Middle - larger, comes off ethmoid
Inferior - largest, separate named bone
Tube like passage way that is found under each chonchae
Name for the opening of the ethmoidal sinuses that opens above the superior chonchae
Superior meatus
Name for the opening of the ethmoidal sinuses and frontal sinues
Middle meatus
Name for the opening of the nasolacrimal duct
Inferior meatus
Paired air spaces within 4 bones of the skull that produce mucus for protection of airways
Paranasal air sinuses
Group of small sinuses that opens in the superior and middles meatus
Ethmoidal air sinues
Tube that runs from medial corners of eye designed to carry excess tears to nasal cavity
Nasolacrimal duct
Thick mucus membrane, richly supplied with blood vessels, capable of having a great deal of swelling
Nasal mucosa
Names for the 3 regions of the pharynx
1. Nasal
2. Oral
3. Laryngeal
Nasal pharyx is located where?
Behind the nose
Oral pharyx is located where?
Behind the mouth
Laryngeal pharyx is located where?
Below the mouth
The upper respiratory tract covers what area?
Laryngeal pharynx and up
The lower respiratory tract covers what area?
Laryx and down
Forms the major part of the skeleton layer of the laryx
Thyroid cartilage
Area at the lower end of the laryx attached to lower posterior margin of the thyroid cartillage, connects larynx to trachea
Cricoid cartillage
Found on either side of the back end of the cricoid cartilage, hinged and swing back and forth
Artytenoid cartilages
2 strips of mucus membranes attached in fron to the larynx and in back to the arytenoid cartillages.
Vocal folds
Name for vocal cords
Name for unpaired leaf shaped piece of cartilage attached to the top of the rim of the thyroid cartillage that moves up and down like a trap door
Area below the larynx
Name for area that lays on the posterior side of the trachea
Trachea splits into 2 areas called...
primary bronchi
The primary bronchi enter into what structure
Right and left lungs
How many lobules does the right lung have?
How many lobuels does the left lung have?
Name for the pleural sac that touches or faces the wall of the chest
Parietal pleura
Name for the pleural sac that is located against the lungs
Visceral pleura
The right lung has how many lobes?
3 lobes - right superior, right middle and right inferior
The right lung has how many lobules?
10 lobules
The left lung has how many lobes?
No middle lobe
The left lung has how many lobules?
8 lobules
Describe the respiratory tree
1. Secondary bronchi
2. Tertiary
3. Bronchioles
4. Terminal bronchioles
5. Respiratory bronchioles
6. Alveolar ducts
7. Alveolus
8. Alveolar sacs
9. Pulmonary capillaries
Part of the pleural sac that touches or faces the wall of the chest
Parietal pleura
Part of the pleural sac that lies against the lungs
Visceral pleura
Each side of the heart has what type of an upper chamber?
A smaller upper chamber
Each side of the heart has what type of a lower chamber?
A larger lower chamber
Part of the heart that receives blood from the body
The right atrium
Part of the heart that pumps blood to the lungs
The right ventricle
Part of the heart that takes blood from the lungs and takes reoxygenated blood from the lungs
The left atrium
Part of the heart that takes reoxygenated blood and pumps it out to the body
The left ventricle
Which area of the heart is the largest?
The left ventricle
Name for the modified areas of heart muscle cells that act as nerves
Nodes of the heart
Node in upper wall of the right atrium that initiates the heart beat approx 70 times per minute
Sinu-atrial nodes or S-A node
Like power lines that carry an impulse over the entire right and left atrium and contract almost simultaneously
Internodal tracts
Located in the wall between the right atrium and the left ventricle which stimulates that right and left ventricle
Atrio-ventricular node or A-V node
Carries electrical impulse from the AV node
The AV bundle or the bundle of His
Divisions of the bundle of His that splits into the right and left ventricle
Right and left bundle branches
Carries the electrical impulses going into the heart
Purkinje fibers
Carries blood away from the heart - thick walled vessel
Smaller vessels that distribute blood, smooth muscle that represents the division of the large arteries into smaller vessels
Shortest/thinnest of vessels, exchange of oxygen takes place here
Name for slightly larger vessels which is the beginning of the return of blood back to the heart
Bigger vessels that bring blood back tot he heart, bigger than arteries but thinner walled
2 arteries that immediately come off the ascending aoarta and feed the right and left side of the heart
The R and L coronary arteries
First big artery that is umpaired and has 3 major branches
Celiac trunk
Name for superficial veins
How many valves does a vein have?
It has a 1 way valve to keep blood flowing in 1 direction
Superficial vein that runs to the lateral side of arm and dumps into the axillary vein
Cephalic vein
Vein that runs up the medial side of the arm and empties into the brachial vein
Basillic vein
Odd by-pass vein that is umpaired
Azygous vein
Vein that runs up the medial side of the lower extremity to groin and dumps into the femoral vein
The great saphenous vein
The right side of the lymph vessels empties where?
The right thoracic duct
What 4 areas of the body do not contain lumph vessels?
Avascular system, CNS and eye(brain/spinal), spleen and bone marrow
The system that is known for carrying leftover fluid from the tissue spaces back to the heart
The lymphatic system
A substance that is produced in 1 part of the body that influences cells in another part of the body
A hormone
A gland that empties its' chemicals into cells that respond
Endocrine gland
A gland that empties its' chemical substance into a duct
Exocrine gland (example: perspiration)
Type of hormone found in receptor sites in the nucleus of the cell
Thyroid hormone
Type of hormone found in receptor sites in the cytoplasm
Steroid hormone
Type of hormone found in the receptor sites on the outer surface of the cell membrane
All the rest of the hormones
Name the 5 endocrine glands
1. Pituitary
2. Pineal
3. Thyroid
4. Parathroid
5. Adrenals
5 organs with substantial hormonal activity
1. Thymus
2. Pancreas
3. Stomach
4. Duodemum of SI
5. Gonads
Pineal gland is located where?
Back of the brain
Pituitary gland is located where?
Front of the brain
Gland that lays below and in front of the larynx
The largest of the pure endocrine glands
Gland that is located behind the stermum and is 100% hormonal
Gland that is 98% exocrine and 2% endocrine
20% of hormonal production, produces glucose and raises blood sugar levels
Alpha cells
75% of hormonal production, secretes insulin, lowers blood sugar levels
Beta cells
5% of hormonal secretion, produces human grouth hormones
Delta cells

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