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A.P. US History Chapter 37


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Lond Economic Conference 1933
66 nations, came together to try and find a worldwide solution to the great depression.
Tydings-McDuffie Act
stated that the philippines would receive their independence after 12 years of economic and political tutelage, 1946
Soviet Union
in 1933, FDR formally recognized them, hoped for trade, hoped they would discourage Germany and Japan aggression
Latin America
"Good neighbor" policy, US content to be regional not world power
Seventh Pan-American Conference
1933, FDR renounced armed intervention in Latin America
Marines left in 1934, year after the Seventh Pan-American Conference
Released from Platt Amendment which allowed US to intervene
Naval base retained in Cuba after relase from Platt Amendment
1936, Washington released its grip on the isthmus nation
seized Yankee oil properties in 1938
Cordell Hull
secretary of state, chief architect of reciprocal trade policy, Trade was two way street, helped pass Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act 1934
Led by Nazi Fascist Adolf Hitler, controlled with "big lie": to bring country back to greatness and out of poverty
Facist Benito Mussolini seized power in 1922. 1936 Hitler-Mussolini alliance, Rome-Berlin Axis. in 1935 conquered Ethiopia
slow growth of strength, refused to cooperate with the World. Armed itself by ending Washington Naval Trey in 1934. Walked out of London conference
Gerald Nye
1934 Nye committee investigated whether munitions manufacturers were pro-war only to make more money. Press blamed manufacturers for dragging America into WWI
Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act, 1934
activated low-tariff policies while aiming at relief and recovery by lifgting American Trade
Johnson Debt Default Act, 1934
forbade any countries that still owed the US money from borrowing more.
Neutrality Act, 1935,36,37
proclaimed no Americans could sale on belligerent ships, sell or transport munitions to a belligerent, or make loans. During foreign wars
Spanish Civil War, 1936-39
Spanish rebels led by Facist General Francisco Franco rose up against left-leaning republican govt.
Treaty of Versailles
peace settlement after WWI and in shadow of Russian Revolution in 1918. Between Germany and the allies in Versailles, France.
Francisco Franco
Fascist General Led Spanish Revolution, aided by Hitler and Mussolini
Francisco tried to overthrow in Spain
Marco Polo Bridge
1937 Japanese exploded, led to all-out invasion of China
"Quarantine Speech"
verbal chastise of Japan, called for "quarantine" (ecnomic embargoes) of Japan
Dec 1937, japanese bombed/sunk American gunboat, apology saves relations
Rhineland 1936
Demilitarized zone controlled by Allies, Hitler marched in.
Austria, 1938
German bloodless occupation. Allies hope this will appease Hitler
Sudetenland 1938
Hitler made bullying demands of neighbor Czechoslovakia. Given to appease
Soviet Union 1939
signed nonaggression pact with Germany shocking the world
Poland 1939
Split between Soviets and Germany. Britain and France are too late to help, falls in 3 weeks
"Phony War"
ominous silence, lull in war after collapse of Poland, before knockout blow to France
Invaded by Soviets, $30 million US help, nonmilitary reasons
Denmark and Norway
Hitler's invasion ended "Phony War"
June 1940, Blitz paralyzes France
British salvages troops from French port, brings forth Winston Churchill
first peacetime draft, 1.2mill troops, 800,000 were reserves.
Netherlands, Denmark, and France
orphaned colonies in New World
Havana Conference 1940
Uphold Monroe Doctrine, protect orphaned colonies
Committee to Defend America by Aiding the allies
"Britain in Fighting our Fight" "All Methods Short of War"
America First Committee
Isolationist, "England will fight to the last American" "protect American soils."
September 2, 1940; Fifty old model, WW1 destroyers
trade to Britain for eight defensive bases in West
abandoned pretense of neutraility, increased factory capacity to help Britain
"Robin Moor"
March 21, 1941. Unarmed American Merchant ship. Torpedoed by German submarine in South Atlantic outside war zone
June 22, 1941
Hitler devastates Soviets. "two fiends can slit each other's throats."
Robert A taft
senator of Ohio, son of ex-president, energetic boy wonder. Aspired to be Republican nominee for president.
Thomas E. Dewey
lawyer from New York, also aspired to be Republican nominee
Wendell Wilkie
swept Republican convention, rocketed from political nothingness, ran against FDR in 1940
re-elected 449 to 82, 27,307,819 to 22,321,018
Burton Wheeler
against Lend-lease, "the new AAA bill," "Plow under every fourth American boy"
Atlantic Conference, August 1941
Winston Churchill and FDR discuss common problems, (menace of Japan) produced 8-point Atlantic Charter
Convoy of Merchant Ships Carrying Lend-lease Supplies
NAVY escort supplies to Iceland, British take it from there. Clases with submarines
Sept 1941, destroyed attacked by German U-boat while trailing it, undamage.
Oct 17, 1941. Crippled in battle with U-boats. 11 died.
"Rueben James"
Sunk off southwestern Iceland. More than 100 dead
Mid-November 1941
Congress pulls teeth from Neutrality Act of 1939. Merchant ships armed, enter combat zones with munitions for Britain, brace for attacks by Germans.
September 1940
Japan a Formal military ally of Germany
Late 1940
Washington imposes first embargo on Japan-bound supplies
Freeze of Japanese assest in the US. Cessation of all shipments of gasoline and other sinews of war.
November and early December 1941
Final tense negotiations with Japan

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