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The impact of boredom and fatigue on people's absolute thresholds is highlighted by
signal detection theory.
If a visual image is first presented subliminally, the chance of a person later recognizing the same briefly presented image is improved. This best illustrates:
that information can be processed outside of conscious awareness
If you move your watchband up your wrist an inch or so, you will feel it for only a few moments. This best illustrates:
sensory adaptation
Visual information is processed by ganglion cells ________ it is processed by rods and cones and ________ it is processed by bipolar cells.
Visual information is processed by ganglion cells after it is processed by rods and cones and before it is processed by bipolar cells.
Damage to the basilar membrane is most likely to affect one's:
The central focal point in the retina where cones are heavily concentrated is known as the:
Digital hearing aids produce ________ sound by restricting the range of sound _______.
Digital hearing aids produce compressed sound by restricting the range of sound amplitudes
Receptor cells for the vestibular sense send messages to the:
Damage to a region of the temporal lobe essential to recognizing faces results in a condition known as:
top-down processing
Interpreting new sensory information within the framework of a past memory illustrates:
Damage to a region of the temporal lobe essential to recognizing faces results in a condition known as
The size of the difference threshold is greater for heavier objects than for lighter ones. This best illustrates
Weber's law.
Even with sunglasses on, grass appears equally as green as it does without glasses. This best illustrates
color constancy
The number of complete sound waves that strike one's eardrum in a given second determines the _______ of the sound.
The number of complete sound waves that strike one's eardrum in a given second determines the pitch
Herman von Helmholtz developed both a(n) ________ theory of color discrimination and a ________ theory of pitch discrimination.
color ; place
A drink's strawberry odor enhances our perception of its sweetness. This best illustrates:
sensory interaction
absolute threshold
we sense only a portion of the sea of energy that surrounds us but to this portion we are sensitive. Our absolute threshold for any stimulus is the minimum stimulation necarry for us to detect it 50% of the time.
what allows us to survive and detect minute changes in important stimuli?
The difference threshold or the just noticable difference is low enuf to detect minute changes
the difference threshold increases in proportion to the size of the stimulus. This represents what principle?
WEbers law
what is done to keep our attention on informative changes?
Sensory adaptation allows us to diminish our ssensitivity to concstant or routine odors, sounds and touches
how do the senses use transuction?
all senses receive stimulation. It is then transduced into neural signals and these neural messages are sent to the brain
the hue and brightness we perceive depends on what
wavelength and its intensity
what is the process of light being acknowledged in our sight?
1)lens focus light waves hitting retina
2)retina's light sensitive rods and color sensitive cones convert light energy into neural impulses that are coded by the retina
4)impulses sent by optic nerve to brain
ganglion cells
receive information from the photoreceptors in a small circular region around the ganglion cell(receptive field). Any light from the photoreceptors that falls in the receptive field can influence the ganglion cells.
how is sound registered?
1)auditory canal
3)middle ear
5)hair cells
explain each step for audition
1)sound waves travel thru the auditory canal and causes vibrations in the ear drum
2)vibrations in the ear drum
3)vibrations in eardrum go thru the bones of the middle ear and are sent to the cochlea.
4)tiny hair cells in cochlea are moved by vibratoins
5)movement of hair causes neural messages to go the brain
what is our sense of touch made up of?
these combine to produce other pain signals
what five sensations is taste made up of?
it is a chemical sense but there are no basic senations for smell. 5 million olfactory receptor cells with their different 1000 different recepetor proteins recognize individual odor molecules. Some odors trigger a combination of receptors
bottom up processing
this begins with the sense receptors and works its way up to the brain's integration of sensory info.
top down processing
information guided by higher level mental processes.
s h
y y
c s
h i
the study of relationships between stimuli, such as their intensity and our psychological experiences of them
signal detection theory
theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus amid background stimulation. We are affected by experience, motivation, fatigue etc
there are two categories of subliminal
1)sensation: noticeable
2)persuasion: hidden
weber's law
to be perceived as different two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage
conversion of energy from one form to another
sensory adaptation
we get used to old stuff to absorb or notice new more easily
the distance from the peak of one light wave or sound wave to the next
the amt of engergy in a light or sound wave, we perceive as brightness or loudness
1)light enters thru cornea which bends light to focus
2)from cornea to pupil whose size is controlled by the iris
3)iris dilates to adjust light intake.
4)behind pupil is the lens which focus incoming rays on to the retina this is done by accomodation
what is the light sensitive inner surface of the eye
The retina is light sensitive. It contains photoreceptors. It receives upside down images. Receptor cells transduce light into neural impulses that are sent to the brain and are then perceived as upright images.
what is acuity
sharpness of vision
when u are nearsighted objects that are further away are in front of the retina
when u are farsighted where are the objects u see focused?
the image i see is focuses behind the retina
what detects ifne detail, gives rise to color senations and have bipolar cells to help relay messages to the cortex
The cones are useless without light so if they dont work rods takeover. also they are concentrated near the center of the retina
optic nerve
this is a nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain.
blind spot
the point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye..
feature detectors are nerve cells that do what?
They respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape ,angle or movement. They receive their info from ganglion cells and send their info to the visual cortex which passes this info onto the temporal and parietal cortex.
parallel processing
the processing of several aspects of a problem simultaneously
the theory that the retina contains 3 different color receptors one most sensitive to red, one to green, one to blue which stimulated in combination can produce the perception of any color
stare at red square.look away. see green square. this goes along with the opponenet process theory.
pitch depends on frequncy
a pitch is a tone's highness or lowness
middle ear
it is between the eardrum and the cochlea
what contains the cochlea, vestibular sacs and semicircular canals
inner ear
what has 16,0000 hair cells that allows it to send impulses to nerve fibers?
cochlea! the cochlea is a coiled, bony, fluid filled tube in the inner ear thru which sound waves trigger nerve impulses with hair.
what theory links the pitch we hear with the place it is stimulated at on the cochlea's membrane.
Hermoltz said thhat the place theory lets us link the pitch we hear with where it is stimulated at on the cochlea membrane. We hear differnt pitches becuz differnt sound waves trigger activity at different lvls in the cochlea's basilar membrane
how we hear
1) sound waves travel from eardrum to cochlea by the middle HAS.
2)vibration inside the cochlea causes ripples in the basilar membrane which is lined with hair cells.
3)The rippling of the membrane bends the hair and triggers impulses in the nerve fibers
frequency theory
the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, enabling us to sense pitch
the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea is damaged
hearing loss caused by the damage to cochlea's receptor cells or to the auditory nerves
individual body parts
kinesthesis is when the system senses the position and movement of individual body parts
sense of balance
body movement and positioning
vestibular sense is the sense of body movement and position including the sense of balance. it monitors the movement of the head and thus body.
supposedly the spinal cord contains a neuroloical gate control theory
the gate is opened by the activity of pain signals traveling up SMALL nerve fibers. they are closed by activity in a LARGE fiber or by incoming info from the brain

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