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Human Sexuality NC3


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Female external genitalia: Mons publis
All structures are called the vulva
a pad of adipose tissue located over the symphysis pubis(pubic bone joint)
Female external genitalia:
Labia minora
posterior to the mons pubis, two folds of connective tissue, interior surface is mucous membrane, exterior surface is skin
Female external genitalia:
Labia Majora
positioned lateral to the labia minora, fused anteriorly but separated posteriorly, covered by pubic hair. The labia majora protects the external genitalia, the urethra, and the distal vagina
Female external genitalia:
small rounded organ of erectile tissue at the forward junction of the labia minora, sensitive to touch and temperature
Female external genitalia:
skene's glands(g-spot)
paraurethral glands located lateral to the urinary meatus, secretions lubricated the external genitalia during coitus(sex/penetration)
Female external genitalia:
bartholin's glands
located lateral to the vaginal opening on both sides, produce an alkaline lubricant that improves sperm survival in the vagina
Female internal genitalia:
pair of female gonads that produce, mature and discharge ova. Produce estrogen and progesterone and initiate and regulate menstrual cycles
Female internal genitalia:
fallopian tubes
function is to convey the ova from the ovaries to the uterus, place for fertilization of the ova by sperm
Female internal genitalia: uterus
hollow, muscular, pear-shaped organ located in the lower pelvis, posterior to the bladder and anterior to the rectum. Recieves the ova, providing a place for implantation and nourishment during fetal growth, protection to a growing fetus and expulsion of the fetus at maturity
Female internal genitalia:
hollow musculomembranous canal located posterior to the bladder and anterior to the rectum extending from the cervix to the external vulva. An organ of intercourse that conveys sperm to the cervix. During childbirth it expands to serve as the birth canal.
Female internal genitalia:
lowest portion of the uterus
Phases of menstruation:
(estrogen, follicular, or postmenstrual) approxiamtely day 5 to day 14. Endometrium increases in thickness about eight fold
Phases of menstruation
(progestational, luteal, premenstrual)dominance of progesterone from the corpus luteum causes the endometrium to become dilated with glycogen and mucin
Phases of menstruation:
without fertilization the corpus luteum regresses and progesterone and estrogen levels drop. The endometrium begins to degenerate (day 24 or 25). Capillaries rupture and the endometrium sloughs off.
Phases of menstruation:
blood, mucin, endometrial tissue fragments and unfertilized ovum are discharged from the uterus as the menstrual flow
hypothalmus produces gonadotropin-releasing hormone which causes pituitary gland stimulation. The pituitary releases follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone which causes the ovary to produce estrogen and progesterone. The function of estrogen/progesterone is to prepare the vagina, breast, uterus for pregnancy. Without pregnancy estrogen and progesterone decreases and menses ensues
3 phases of menstruation cycle
ovarian, luteal and endometrial/uterine
Ovarian cycle
begins with the follicular phase where estrogen is dominant until the follicle matures. During the ovulatory phase the oocyte ruptures from the ovary and progesterone is dominant.
luteal phase
the uterus prepares for implantation
uterine phase
begins with the proliferative phase when the endometrium grows for possible implantation. Followed by the secretory phase progesterone continues to be dominant
Male external genitalia:
composed of cylindrical masses of erectile tissue: corpus cavernosa and corpus spongiosum. The urethra passes through the layers and serves as the outlet for urinary and reproductive tracts in men. Retractable foreskin(prepuce) is surgically removed during circumcision
Male external genitalia:
pair of skin-covered pouches that contain testes, epididymis and spermatic cord.
Male external genitalia:
oviod glands composed of leydig's cells and seminiferous tubule. Seminiferous tubules produce permatozoa. Leydig's cells produce testosterone
Male internal genitalia:
prostate gland
secretes thin alkaline fluid that protects sperm by lowering the pH level
Male internal genitalia:
seminal vesicles
convuluted pouches that empty into the urethra through the ejaculatory ducts. Provide the viscous portion of semen which provides sperm with increased motility
erectile dysfunction
can be a side effect of antihypertensives, tranquilizers and antidepressants
decreased potency
alcohol, cocaine and nicotine
sexual function
opiates, marijuana, cocaine, sedative and hypnotics, amphetamines and amyl nitrite, LSD, cantharides and yohimbine
Male sexual resonse:
excitement phase
rapid erection, thickening of scrotal skin, elevation of the scrotal sac response of vasocongestion. Increased HR,increased BP, flushed skin, and increased genetalia blood flow
Male sexual resonse:
plateau phase
increased length and diameter of penis, testes size, increased by 50%. Cowper's gland produces lubrication at the urethral meatus. Orgasm is the climax of the plateau phase.
plateau phase:
ejacualation stage I
ejaculation stage I: seminal fluid expulsed from the seminal vesicles into the prostatic urethra
plateau phase: ejactulation stage II
seminal fluid expulsed from the prostatic urethra to the urethral meatus
Male sexual response:
final phase
(resolution) immediately after orgasm, rapid loss of vasocongestion and decrease in penis size
obligatory refractory period
unable to be restimulated to erection
female sexual response:
excitement phase
vasocongestion caused clitoral enlargement and vaginal lubrication. The vaginal orifice opens. Increases HR, BP and increased blood flow to genitals
female sexual response:
plateau phase
retraction of the clitoris under the clitoral hood, vagina expands in width and depth, rising of cervix and uterus
female sexual response:
orgasmic phase
increases HR, RR, BP
female sexual response:
resolution phase
clitoris returns to normal size and position, vasocongestion dissipates. No obligatory refractory period
sexual dysfunction
the state in which a person experiences a change in sexual function that is viewed as unsatisfying, unrewarding or inadequate
primary- never achieved an erection necessary for intercourse.
secondary- has experienced erections in the past but has subsequent difficulty.
Tx: sildenafil citrate (viagra)
Problems with ejaculation
subjective response of both partners dependent on levels of satisfaction.
Primary:physiological disturbances
secondary: interpersonal problems, lumbar sympathectomy, antiadrenergic drugs (guanethidine, methyldopa)
orgasmic dysfuction
common in women
1- lack of information
2. lack of adequate stimulation
3 relationship problems
painful intercourse- lack of lubrication, inadequate sexual arousal, drugs, estrogen deficiency and infections
involuntary contractions, painful penetration
benign prostatic hyperplasia
progressive adenamatous enlargement common in aging. Urinary outlet obstruction (TURP) transurethral resection of the prostate
age-related problems
climateric- period between middle to old age which has significant sexual changes. Thinning of vaginal tissues, slower arousal, fewer spontaneous erections, chronic diseases, medicaiton usage, decreased mobility and body image changes
(STD) Candida, gardnerella, trichomonas tests
detected by wet slide preparation of vaginal secretions
tests for chlamydia and gonorrhea
cervical culture
tests for herpes genitalis and genital warts
caused by human papilloma virus can become cancerous and syphilis
(rhythm, cervical mucus, symto-thermal)require motivation, time, consistent daily records, and abstinence. Does not allow for spontaneous sex
most effective when used properly, uses combinations of estrogen and progestin. Positive and negative health effects, increased sexual permissiveness, no barrier to HIV/AIDS transmission. Mini-pill, postcoital, subcutaneous implant, monthly injectable
intrauterine devices
improved safety and efficacy with slight risk of infection and ectopic pregnancy
barrier methods
diaphragms, cervical caps and condoms. Small risk of infection, including toxic shock syndrome
coitus interruptus
surgical sterilization
considered permanent, with a slight chance of reversal
Self Care Behavior:
testicular self examination
perform monthly after a warm bath or shower, roll each testicle identify lumps or nodules
Self Care Behavior:
breast self examination
monthly about a week after menses with finger pads over entire breast area. Visual examination for dimpling, changes or redness or swelling

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