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EPPP Clinical Psychology


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Psychodynamic Therapy
-insight oriented
-past determines present
-general principals apply to everyone
-conflicts affect personality development
Freudian Psychoanalysis
-defense mechanisms
-transference and countertransference
-clarification, confrontation and working through
Parallel Process
acting out of sexual energy onto someone else (usually a supervisor) that is being dealt with inappropriately in therapy
All Freudian defense mechanisms are meant to ________ _________.
reduce anxiety
At the core of Freudian belief.
Individual (Adlerian) Therapy
-innate social interest
-feelings of inferiority
-striving for superiority
-mistaken style of life (ex: self-centered, goal is about you)
-teleological therapist (people's bx are shaped by future goals)
Adler was the first person to write about...
birth order and personality
Jung's Analytic Psychology
-said personality is a lifetime event and can grow and change
-collective unconscious/archetypes (shared pool of information, all of us have primordial images)
Object Relations Theory
-internalized representations of self/object
-separation/individuation (Mahler)
-family therapy/interpretation of transference
-feminist revision
-greater emphasis on ego and social aspects (ex: Horney, Fromm, etc)
-Karen Horney -- basic anxiety (if mother's bond is unsuccessful, can develop basic anxiety)
Humanistic Therapy
-adopt a phenomenological approach (working with someone on a very individual basis)
-emphasize the here and now
-propose an innate capacity for positive growth
-focuse on awareness and responsibility
-Unconditional Positive Regard (must be neutral)
Q sort
Carl Rogers' pre-post measure
-therapy is about finding ideal self and what you are now and measuring the gap
Gestalt Therapy
-boundary disturbances (get out introjection and deal with it/externalize and fix it)
-introjection (incorporated into self without ever dealing with it)
-transference (projection of both fantasy and reality ahs has to be clarified in therapy
According to Gestalt psychotherapy, how does a Gestalt psychotherapist externalize and introject?
Empty Chair Technique
What would Jung say about transference?
Jung - transference is a "projection of both the collective and personal unconscious"
Rogers - would passively accept transference
Interpersonal Therapy (IPT)
-cognitive-behavioral and psychodynamic
-focuses on: role disputes and transitions, grief and/or interpersonal deficits
-primary targets of therapy: symptom reductionand improved interpersonal relationships
Transtheoretical Model
-5 stages of change: precontemplation, contemplation (6 mo. before change), preparation (1 mo. before change), action and maintanence
Motivational Interviewing
-uses transtheoretical model
Solution-Focused Therapy
-use client as the expert ("What has worked for you before?")
-focuses on solutions rather than the problems themselves
-exceptions: times when problem was absent or less
-miracle question: leads to possible solutions
Family Therapy
-homeostasis (negative feedback loop, keep things same, positive, change)
-symmetical (even-powered relationship - who is in charge can cause problems) versus complementary (don't compete for power)
-double-bind communication (competing messages, used to think this created schizophrenia but doesn't)
Extended Family Systems Therapy (Bowen)
-Key concepts are: differentiation of self (how does this person deal with emotions? -better differentiated, better able to cope)
-emotional triangles
-multigenerational transmission process
Structural Family Systems Therapy (Minuchin) KEY CONCEPTS
Key Concepts: boundaries (diesngaged or enmeshed), rigid triads (detouring - only focusing on children, stable coalition - ex: daughter and mom allied against dad, triangulation - dad and mom vying for children's coalition)
Structual Family Systems Therapy (Minuchin) THERAPY
-joining (two components - mimesis: mimicry and accomodation, ex: if the family is verbal, you'll be more verbal
-unbalancing family homeostasis (where the change occurs, happens by escalating the stress and manipulation the mood)
Strategic Family Therapy (Haley)
Key Concepts: communication and power
Group Therapy (Irv Yalom)
1. Initial (limited exploration, reliance on therapist, advice giving and problem-solving, may resist)
2. Transition (high resistence - power struggles - defensiveness, anxiety, may form cliques and become hostile to leader)
3. Working Stage (high trust and cohesion, open communication and feedback, members work outside of group to facilitate change)
Single biggest problem to a group
lack of initial pre-screening
Feminist Therapy
-minimizes power differential
-egalatarian (even-goal, power-bad)
-therapist will selectively self-disclose to even out power between client and therapist
-tends to elicit more false memories than accurate memories
Howard et al (1986) study on psychotherapeutic outcome
Dose-dependent effect: longer you stay in therapy, more benefit (50% of people benefit after 8 sessions)
Howard et al - Phase Model
-Remoralization (installation of hope, better after 3 sessions)
Asian Americans
First session - instill hope and gift-giving
-formal relationship
-careful with affect
African Americans
Multisystems approach
Latino Americans
Cuanto Therapy
Native Americans
Consult elder before starting
Drop-out Rates
Higher for African Americans, lower for Asian Americans,
therapist attitude, values, and cultural sensitivity more important than ethnic matching
Therapy Outcomes
Best for
-Mexican Americans
-then Anglos
-Asian Americans
-African Americans
universalistic (general principles apply to all cultures)
Cultural Encapsulation
Therapist sees things from his/her own worldview and has rigid, stereotyped views of other cultures and therapeutic techniques
Low-context Communication
-characteristic of Anglos
-emphasizes verbal messages
High-context Communication
-characteristic of African Americans
-emphasizes group identification and non-verbal messages
Acculturation (Berry)
Integration: high minority acceptance, high majority identification
Assimilation: low minority acceptance, high majority identification
Separation: high minoriety acceptance, low majority identification
Marginalization: low minority acceptance, low majority identification
World View (Sue)
How a person perceives his/her relationship to nature, other people, etc.
-two dimensions: locus of responsibility and locus of control
Minority (Racial/Cultural) Identity Development Model
1. Conformity (prefers dominant culture over own group)
2. Dissonance (conflicting attitudes toward own and dominant group)
3. Resistance and Immersion (prefers own group, rejects dominant)
4. Introspection (concerned about inflexible attitudes towards groups)
5. Synergetic Articulation/Integrative Awareness (pride in own heritage, accepts/rejects cultural values based on examination, multicultural perspective)
Black Racial (Nigrescence) Identity Development Model (Cross)
1. Pre-encounter (racial identity has low salience, may have internalized racial notions about AA)
2. Encounter(events lead to change in direction of greater racial awareness)
3. Immersion-Emersion (transition stage in which old and emergent identities struggle for dominance)
4. Internalization-Committment (adoption of an AA worldview, may exhibit cultural paranoia)
White Racial Identitiy Development Model (Helms)
1. Contact (lack of racial awareness)
2. Disintegration (increased awareness of differences leads to conflict)
3. Reintegration (conflicts resolved by adopting racist views of white superiority, may deny racism)
4. Pseudo-independence (begin to question racist views)
5. Immersion-Emersion (replaces racists myths with accurate info)
6. Autonomy (internalizes "whiteness" without racist beliefs)

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