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Cognition and Perception Chapter 4 (and a few from 3)


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What are explanations for the Stroop Effect? (2)
1) Parallel distributed processing; You activate two pathways at the same time and they compete resulting in poor performance.
2) Naming colors and reading words are automatic processes. Words are more automatic so it interferes with naming colors.
What are the shortcomings of Bottleneck theories of attention?
They underestimate the flexibility of attention. Information is not simply lost at one phase, but is lost throughout the attention process.
What were the results of research requiring participants to search frames of letters/numbers for other letters/numbers?
If searching for letters among numbers or vice, good RT and accuracy and not affected by the number of target items. If numbers among numbers, poor accuracy and reaction time. Suggests automatic processing using a parallel search and controlled processing uses a serial search.
Which part of the brain is associated with inhibiting processing?
The anterior frontal lobe is involved with inhibiting responses to attend to other stimuli (eg the stroop effect)
How is STM duration tested by the Brown & Peterson Technique?
Study three letters, and then count backward by threes for a short period (preventing them from rehearsing the stimuli) Then, participants try to recall the letters. After 5 seconds people forgot half of what they'd seen.
Sensory memory is part of what model and has what two subcategories?
Atkinson Shiffron Model; Multi-store model;
1) Iconic store
2) echoic store
Iconic store...?
Lasts for less than one second; Part of the Atkinson-Shiffron model of memory.
Echoic store...?
Lasts 2-4 seconds; part of the Atkinson-Shiffron model of memory.
What does a study on digit span in Chinese, English and Welsh say about Short Term Memory?
It is affected by pronunciation time.
What is proactive interference?
It is difficult to learn new information because prior knowledge interferes with learning
What is release from proactive interference?
Proactive interference is reduced when a person switches to a new stimulus category, which produces increased recall.
How is semantic similarity demonstrated in the study of release from proactive interference in Brown-Peterson tasks?
Give three trials with the following (each set to a different participant)

1) all fruits
2) all veggies
3) all flowers
4) all meats

On the fourth trial all participants were given fruits. Those that made the largest switch to a new category had the best remembrance.
What are the three parts to Alan Baddeley's model of working memory?
1) Phonological loop
2) Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad
3) Central Executive
What is a phonological loop?
In Baddeley's working-memory model, the storage device for a limited number of sounds for a short period of time.
What is the Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad?
In Baddeley's working-memory model, the component that stores visual and spatial information. It also stores visual information that has been encoded from verbal stimuli.
What is the central executive?
In Badelley's working memory model, the component of memory that integrates information from the phonological loop, the visuospatial sketchpad, and the episodic buffer.
Name three things the Central Executive is "also" responsible for
1) planning strategies
2) coordinating behavior
3) supressing irrelevant information.
Which hemisphere/parts of the brain are associated with the phonological loop?
Parts of the frontal and temporal lobe in the left hemisphere, which is primarily associated with language anyway.
Which hemisphere is associated with the visuo-spatial sketchpad?
The right hemisphere, which is primarily associated with visual and spatial tasks anyway.
What part of the brain is most associated with the Central Executive?
The frontal lobe of the cortext, although nothing precise. This is because it coordinates such a large amount of tasks.
Stimulus independant thoughts, a.k.a
Which part of working memory is most involved with stimulus-independent thoughts?
The central executive! This was exhibited by the random number generation task.
What is the episodic buffer?
A fourth component of Baddeley's model of working memory that acts as a temporary storehouse for the phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad, and LTM
The central executive plans and coordinates, but it does not...
store information.
What is the Ray-Osterith Complex figure test?
Find out!
What part of H.Ms brain was removed?
Large sections of the temporal lobes including the hippocampus and amygdala
What is consolidation?
The process of adding new information to memory.

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