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Ed Psych Ch 4-5


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what we know about group differences among students
1. There is a great deal of individual variability within any group; 2. there is almost always a great deal of overlap between two groups
what an IQ score tells you about a student's intellectual ability in comparison with other students
general measure of current cognitive functioning, used primarily to predict academic achievement; determined by comparing a person's performance with that of others in the same age-group
relationship of IQ scores to academic achievement
on average, IQ scores do better on standardized achievement tests, have higher school grades, and complete more years of education
things to remember about IQ scores
1. intelligence does not necessarily cause achievement; 2. relationship between IQ scores and achievement is not a perfect one; and 3. IQ scores simply reflect a student's performance on a particular test at a particular time, and that some change is to be expected over the years
Spearman's concept of "g" in intelligence
Although various intelligence tests yield somewhat different scores, people who score high on one test tend to score high on others -- the "g" or "general" factor. "G" is a reflection of the speed and efficiency with which people can process information
Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences (optimistic view of human potential)
there are 8 different abilities or "intelligences" that are relatively independent of each other; manifest themselves differently in different cultures: linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalist
Sternberg's Triarchic Theory
Intelligent behavior involves an interplay of 3 factors: environmental context in which the behavior occurs; the way in which one's prior experience is brought to bear on a task, and the cognitives processes required of the task
criteria for creativity
new and original behavior that yields an appropriate and productive result
examples of divergent thinking
creativity often involves divergent thinking -- starting with one idea and taking it in many different directions (adding improvements to a wagon to make it more fun to play with)
teacher "wait time"
length of time a teacher pauses, either after asking a question or hearing a comment, before saying something
individual achievement and competition in Hispanic and Native American communities
in these cultures, it is neither individual achievement nor competitive achievement that is recognized, but rather group achievement
results of research examining gender differences on verbal, visual-spatial and mathematical abilities
researchers have found that gender differences are quite small, and some have found them to be getting smaller in recent years; for all intents and purposes, we should expect boys and girls to have similar academic aptitudes for different subject areas

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