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American Life in the "Roaring Twenties"


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What was the "Red scare"?
The period after WWI whe people were afraid of radical philosophies.
Who was A. Mitchell Palmer?
He jailed & deported 6,000 immigrants (and radicals).
Unions were in favor of...
closed shop, meaning they must be in the union.
Who were Socco and Vanzetti?
Italian immigrants/anarchists who murdered a guard. They were convicted and sentenced to death, but people said they were convicted for who they were, instead of what they had done.
What was the Ku Klux Klan?
Anti-foreigners, -Catholic, -Jew, -pacifist, -birth control, -communist, -black (5 million members)
What was the Emergency Quota Act?
1921; 3% of total # of immigrants from 1910 could come to US.
What was the Immigration Act?
1924; 2% of total # of immigrants from 1890 could come to US.
Which immigrants were basically eliminated?
What's the significance of the year 1931?
More Americans left than arrived.
What was the Volstead Act?
1919; this law made drinking a crime.
What were "speakeasies"?
What were "rum runners"?
Alcohol smugglers
What was "moonshine"?
Homemade alcoholic beverage
What was one result from the Volstead Act/prohibition?
Worker absenteesim decreased, and the workers' savings increased.
Where was the center of gangsters?
Who was Al Capone?
"Scar face"; St. Valentine's Day Massacre (1929), he rounded up a bunch of gangsters and shot them.
What is extortion?
Protection $; gangs made people pay so that they don't hurt them. They protected them fr. other gangs, but threatened them.
In 1929, what was the life expectancy?
59 yrs.
What subject was a crime to teach?
Who was John Scopes?
1925, he was accused of teaching about evolution in Dayton, Tennessee.
Who was the prosecutor in Scopes' trial?
William Jennings Bryan
Who was the defense attorny in Scopes' trial?
Clarence Darrow
Who was H.L. Mencken?
A journalist
What happened between Bryan and Darrow?
Darrow humiliated Bryan, and Bryan died 5 days later.
Who was Henry Ford?
He created Model T (1912-1931).
How many cars were in the US in 1930?
30 million
Who stressed education for life (elective classes)?
John Dewey
What did Bruce Barton wrote?
"The Man Nobody Knows", giving rationale justifying advertising. If Jesus were still alive, he would be an ad-man.
What did people have?
Leisure time
Who was the major league pitcher for Red Sox and batter for Yankees?
George Herman "Babe" Ruth
Who attracted 100,000 spectators?
Jack Dempsey
What sport was illegal?
Boxers were mostly what nationality?
Who was the famous football player?
Harold "Red" George
What was the center of automobiles?
Which industries prospered b/c of automobiles?
Steel, rubber, glass, fabrics, roads, service stations, auto repair, & petroleum.
Which industry was hurt b/c of automobiles?
By what were roads financed?
Gas taxes
The automobile was a symbol of what?
What were the advantages of cars?
Leisure hours on driving vacations, freed women from dependence on men, less attractive stages lost population, and suburbs spread farther.
What were some disadvantages of cars?
Smog and deaths b/c of car accidents.
Who were Orville and Wilur Wright?
They successfully flew a plane on Dec. 17, 1903 in Kittyhawk, North Carolina.
Where was the first transcontinental airmail route established?
Fr. NY to San Francisco in 1920.
Who's the greatest hero of this period?
Charles A. Lindbergh
Who was Charles A. Lindbergh?
1st solo pilot on the plane "Spirit of St. Louis" to go west-to-east; flew from NY to Paris.
Who invented the wireless?
1890; Marconi
What was the first radio station?
KDKA, Pittsburgh; Nov. 1920
What was the first real movie with a story/plot?
1903; "The Great Train Robbery"; 1/2 hr. movie produced by Edison Co.
Who was D.W. Griffith?
He produced the movie "The Birth of a Nation" (1915); used zoom in/zoom out.
What became the center of movies?
Hollywood; b/c of weather.
What is a "talkie"?
A movie that had people actually talking and not mouthing the words.
What was the 1st talkie?
"The Jazz Singer" starring Al Jolson, 1927.
How many admissions were sold for movies per week?
100 million
Who became the standards of living?
Film stars
What was the standardization of American culture?
Americans weren't as socially isolated.
What was the language used in movies?
Who was Margaret Sanger?
An advocate for birth control.
What were "flappers"?
Women who cut their hair short ("bobbed" their hair), smoked, and described themselves as more liberal.
What did Sigmund Freud say?
Mental health required sexual gratification.
How many Africans lived in Harlem by 1920?
100,000; Harlem was the largest African-American community.
Who was Marcus Garvey?
Founder of the United Negro Improvement Association; promoted resettlement of American blacks in Africa.
Who was Henry L. Mencken?
Author; criticized American society; called middle-class American the "booboisie."
What did F. Scott Fitzgerald write?
"The Great Gatsby"; glamour and cruelty of an achievement-oriented society.
What did Theodore Dreiser write?
"An American Tragedy"; murder of pregnant working girl by her socially ambitious young lover.
What did Ernest Hemingway write?
"The Sun Also Rises," "A Farewell to Arms"; writing style was short sentences and few adjectives.
What did Sherwood Anderson write?
"Winesburg, Ohio"
What did Sinclair Lewis write?
"Main Street"; about middle America
What did William Faulkner write?
"The Sound and the Fury"; about deep south
What did T.S. Eliot write?
Poem "The Waste Land"
What did Robert Frost write?
Poem "The Road Not Taken"
What was the significance of e.e. cummings?
Poet; relied on unorthodox diction and peculiar typesetting to produce poems.
What did Eugene O'Neill write?
"The Iceman Cometh"
Who was Langston Hughes?
Writer; led renaissance
Who was Frank Lloy Wright?
What did Andrew Mellon?
Lowered taxes b/c he believed high taxes discouraged business.
What does buying stocks "on margin" mean?
Small down payment.
Who was the 1st pres. in office when women had the right to vote?
Who was the secretary of treasury?
Andrew Mellon
Who was the secretary of commerce?
Herbert Hoover
Who was the secretary of interior?
Albert Fall
Who was the attorney general?
Harry Daugherty
What was the Adkins v. Children's Hopsital?
The Court invalidated a minimum wage law for women.
What did Daugherty use to end the strike?
What was the Veterans' Bureau?
Created by Congress in 1921, authorized to operate hospitals and provide vocational rehabilitation for disabled.
What was the American Legion?
Founded in Paris 1919 By TR Jr.; superpatriotic
What was the Adjusted Compensation Act?
1924; gave veterans a paid-up insurance policy due in 20 yrs.
Where did the US drill oil?
What was the Washington Disarmament conference?
1st time nations voluntarily agreed to reduce armament; US:G.Britain:Japan:France: Italy; 5:5:3:1.5:1.5
What was the Kellogg-Briand Pact?
1928; signed by 62 nations, outlawed war
What was the Fordney-McCumber Tariff?
Raised tariff from 27% to 38.5%.
What did Col. Charles Forbes do?
Stole $200 million from Veterans Hospital.
What did Albert Fall do?
Hw gave Ed Doheny and Henry Sinclair the right to drill Teapot Dome, WY, and Elk Hills, CA. Doheny gave $300,000 to Fall and Sinclair $100,000.
How many years did Fall get sentenced to?
Doheny and Sinclair were...
Harry Daugherty was convicted of what?
Selling pardons and medicinal alcohol.
When did Harding die?
Aug. 2, 1923, 2 yrs. into his administration, from a stroke.
Who took office after Harding died?
Calvin Coolidge.
Who prospered in the 20's for the 1st time?
What was the McNary-Haugen Bill?
Govt. would buy farm surpluses; vetoed by Coolidge.
Who were the candidates for the 1924 election?
Coolidge (R), John W. Davis (D), La Follette (Progressives)
Describe the 2 types of Democrats.
(1)Drys, rural, fundamentalist, southern conservatists, old lime Americans, (2) Wets, urban, modernists, northern liberals, immigrants
What was the Dawes plan?
US banks loaned $ to Germany so that Germany could pay France and G. Britain so that France and G. Brtain could pay US.
Who were the candidates for the 1928 election?
Herbert Hoover (R), Alfred Smith (D)
What phrase is associated w/ Hoover?
"Rugged individualism"
What hurt Smith's chance of winning?
He was Roman Catholic and a wet/urban democrat.
Isolation didn't apply where?
Latin America
What was the Agricultural Marketing Act?
Govt. to loan $ to farmers/farm organizations; created Farm Board
What was the Hawley-Smoot Tariff?
60% tariff; highest tariff
What does "making a killing" mean?
Doing well in the stockmarket.
What happened Oct. 24 and 29 of 1929?
Black Thursday - stockmarket crash, Black Tuesday - another stockmarket crash
Why couldn't people get their $ back ("run on the bank")?
B/c the banks loaned the money.
What was the Great Depression?
People lost optimism
Marriage and birth rates did what?
Name 5 causes of the depression.
(1) Overspeculation on manufacturing, (2) disproportionate distribution of wealth, (3) overextension of credit, (4) shaky foreign economies (Hawley-Smoot Tariff), (5) natural disasters (drought in Mississippi).
What were Hoovervilles?
Clusters of homeless people.
How much did the Hoover dam cost to build?
$2.25 billion
What was the Reconstruction Finance Corporation?
US govt. lending bank. It was designed to provide indirect relief by assisting insurance companies, banks, agricultural organizations, railroads, and even hardpressed state and local governments.
What was the Norris-La Guardia Act?
1932; outlawed yellow dog (antiunion) contracts and forbade federal courts to issue injunctions to restrain strikes, etc. Signed by Hoover.
What did the veterans do?
Demanded immediate payment. 20,000 veterans went to capital in 1932 and created a Hooverville. Hoover called army to get rid of the "Bonus Army." Army used tear gas and injured veterans.
What happened in 1931 involving Japan?
Japan attacked Manchuria, China, and changed the name.
What didn't Hoover believe in?
Direct govt. relief.
What was the major weakness of the League of Nations?
US didn't join.
What was the Hoover-Stimson Doctrine?
US wouldn't recognize any territory claimed by force.
What territory was bombed in 1932 or 1937?
From where did Hoover withdraw troops?
What was the Good Neighbor Policy?
Withdrawal of American bayonets by 1934.
How did business people discourage unions?
They called it communism, "Red Scare."
What did the Immigration Quota Act discriminate against?
Eastern/Souther (Mediterranean) Europe
What was the Immigration Quota Act based on?
Where was the most opposition to prohibition?
How did manufacturers solve their problem of overmanufacturing?
By using advertisement.
Who was the 1st efficiency expert?
Frederick Taylor
In the 1920s, there were more _____ than _____.
What was the contribution of African Americans?
Why did Africans move north during WWI?
What was the earliest involvement in the east?
What did Europe do when US raised tariffs?
They raised their own tariffs.
What was Teapot Dome?
Oil belonging to navy was drilled.
What was the biggest problem for farmers/manufacturers?
European nations argued that they didn't have to pay reparations b/c...?
They paid in blood.
What was Al Smith's nickame?
"Happy Warrior"
Which law contributed to the Great Depression?
Hawley Smoot Tariff
The Bonus Army was aka as what?
Bonus Expeditionary Force
What hurt Hoover's popularity even more?
Bonus Army
What did Japan do?
Resigned fr. League of Nations.

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