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Protozoa 2


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what are the general characteristics of protozoa?
-can reproduce into 8 trophs per cyst in the body.
-anaerobic like
what are the 2 main things we're examing in protozoa morphology?
How is the cytoplasm organized in protozoa?
-Ectoplasma w/ 5 functions
-Endoplasm w/ 2 functions
What is the ectoplasma for?
-taking in nutrients
-elimination of waste
-respiration (anaerobic)
what is the endoplasm for?
-processing absorbed nutrients by enzymatic bkdwn in vacuoles
What do we consider when examing Nuclei?
-Nuclear chromatin
what are the stages of protozoa?
how many?
what is the funciton of the protozoan cyst?
Infection - out in environment
-No nutrient uptake
-No vegetation
What is the function of the protozoan trophozoite?
-Vegetative state
-Moves to nutrients
-Less-protective ectoplasm
What causes Amebiasis?
what are 2 other names for it?
Entamoeba histolytica
-amebic dysentery
-amebic hepatitis
Where is E. histolytica found?
Endemic in tropical climates
found in contamin. food/water
How big is the E. histolytica
Troph: 10-60u
Cyst: 5-20 u
What are the characteristics of the E. histolytica troph?
-lives in large intestine
-half will ingest RBCs
-One nucleus w/ central karyosom
-even arrngd periph chromatin
what are the characteristics of the e. histolytica cyst?
-1-4 nuclei
-Large glycogen vacuole
-Chromatidyl bars
What are the hosts of E. histolytica?
sometimes other mammals
what is the life cycle of e. histolytica?
1. cysts ingested w/ feces-contam food/water;
2. excyst in small intestine;
3. trophs colonize LARGE intestine; may invade lg intest lining, ENTERITIS;
4. May invade bld vssls, cause extraintestinal diseases.
5. Pass cysts in feces
what 2 factors determine the severity of an infection by E. histolytica?
-Organism virulence - enzymes
-Host factors - intest. tract condition, normal flora, diet, previous problems
what type of diet will make a host more susceptible to inf?
high carb
what are 4 types of infections caused by e. histolytica?
-acute amebiasis
-chronic amebiasis
-extra intestinal amebiasis
what would cause asymptomatic?
a very small initial inoculum
vague, nonspecific kind've ill feeling
what are symptoms of acute amebiasis?
DYSENTARY, abdom pain, fever, dehydration
what are symptoms of chronic amebiasis?
similar to acute, but also Constipation, liver tenderness
What 2 types of extra-int amebiasis develop, and in whom?
1. Hepatic - Amebic hepatitis
2. Systemic - in other organs

In immunocompromised, 2-8% of all infected
what 3 bases is diagnosis of E. histolytica made on?
1. Morphological
2. Serological
3. Antigen detection
What do you want in re: to specimen for e. histolytica?
6 stool specimens in a perfect world.
How is diagnosis made morphologically?
if Loose stools = Trophs
if Formed stools = Cysts
if Charcot Leyden crystals = chronic infection
What does serological testing for e. histolytica show?
Extraintestinal disease - if there's Ab in the serum.
what is antigen detection for?
antigens in the stool.
how is amebiasis treated?
Metronidazole or Iodoquinol
How is it prevented?
Nutritional diet
Clean food/water
Personal hygiene
what organisms are in phylum ciliata?
b. coli - balantidium coli
only one!
what diseases does B. coli cause?
balantidial dysentary
what is the host/s of b. coli?

where is it normally found?
Found in warm climates
what is the morphology of B. coli?
it is the largest of the intestinal protozoa;
60x45u = Troph
50-70u = Cyst
What are the morphologic characteristics of the B. coli trophozoite?
-Cilia, hazy under the scope.
-Peristome is nutrient intake.
-Cytopate is extretion hole.
-Cytoplasm is very vacuolated and dirty
-Has a macro/micronucleus
what's special 'bout the nucleus?
Macronucleus is large and kidney bean shaped, performs all metabolic functions.
Micronuc controls reproduct., may not be visible.
what symptoms can be seen in balantidiasis?
-May be asymptomatic
-May be severe dysentary
-May cause intestinal abcesses
How is B. coli diagnosed?
by stool samples
how is balantidiasis treated?
what are the 5 commensal amoebae?
a. Entamoeba harmanni
b. Entamoeba coli
c. Endolimax nana
d. Iodamoeba butschlii
e. Entamoeba gingivalis
how are the commensal amoebae acquired?
by ingestion, same as pathogens
what is entamoeba hartmanni similar to? how is it differed?
Entamoeba histolytica
It's smaller - 4-10u trophs and cysts.
How predominant is
-Entamoeba coli
-Endolimax nana
E. coli = 10-30% in world
E. nana = 10-20% in world
what are the characteristics of Entamoeba coli troph?
-1 nucleus, eccentric karyosome
-Uneven peripheral chromatin
-Dirty cytoplasm
-Blnt psdopod, sluggish motil.
what are the characteristics of E. coli cyst?
15-20u, 1-8 nuclei
-only amoeba w/ >4 nuclei
-splintered chromatidyl bars
what are the characteristics of Endolimax nana troph?
-Small - 8-10u troph
-1 nucleus w/ predom. karyosome
-Vacuoles/dirty cytoplasm
what are the characteristics of e. nana cyst?
-6-8u, so small
-1-4 nuclei look like RBCs but have big karyosomes
what does the iodamoeba butschlii troph resemble?
how do you differentiate?
Identical to e. nana troph; to diffnt, must look for cyst.
How is the Iodamoeba butschlii cyst different from E. nana?
I. butschlii has one large glycogen vacuole and v. large karyosome/nucleus.
E. nana has no glycogen and has small 4 nuclei
What's the only amoeba to ingest WBCs?
-where is it a commensal
-what stage does exist in?
Entamoeba gingivalis
-commensal in mouth
-only has a troph stage

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