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Muscles and Joints


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A physician treats disorders of cardiac muscles
physician specializes in the misalignment of spine
degree of Chiropractor
physician treats paralysis and similar muscular disorders loss of function
physician diagnosis treatment bones joints and muscles
Orthopedic Surgeon
study of making and fitting of orthopedic appliances
physician manipulates the positions of bones
Osteopathic physician
degree of Osteopathic physician
physician specializes in didagnosis and treatment of foot
degrees of podiatrist
DPM Doctor of Podiatric Medicine DP Coctor of Podiatry
physician specializes in diagnosis and treatment of rheumatic diseases
general term for variety of acute and chronic conditions inflammation and deterioration of connective tissues
physician treats sports related injuries of bones, joints and muscles
Sports Medicine
how many muscles are there?
more than 650
how much do muscles and tendons weigh?
more than half of the person's weight
what are the muscles connected to the bone with
what do tendons do
muscles pull on bones
bones are fastened to other bones by fibrous straps called
ligaments wrap around what
what is flexible rubbery substance that supports bones and protects them where they rub
what forms the musculoskeletal system
bones muscles tendons and ligaments
name the muscles
skeletal smooth and cardiac
where are skeletal muscles?
attached to bone in lgs arms abdomen chest neck and face
skeletal muscles are?
why are they called stiated
made up fibers that have horizontal stripes
what do the skeletal muscles do?
hod the skeleton together give body shape and help it with everyday movements
what do skeletal muscles do?
contract shorten or tighten quickly and powerfully
what are skeletal muscles known as?
voluntary muscles
describe smooth muscles
look smooth we can't consciously control they are controlled by the nervous system automatically
where are smooth muscles
walls of stomach and intestines help break up food
where else is smooth muscle?
in walls of blood vessels
what does it do there?
squeezses blood through vessels and helps maintain blood pressure
describe the contraction
take longer to contract than skeletal muscles but can stay contracted for a long time don't tire easily
what comprises the largest single organ of the body
skeletal muscle
how much of the body is made up of skeletal muscle
how do muscles work
in pairs
muscles arise on one bone then what
atach to another bonew cross a joint
when one muscle contracts the opposite what?
relaxes which allows a joint to bend
skeletal muscles have an abundant what?
blood vessels and nerves directly related to primary function of contraction
skeletal muscles are under control of ?
peripheral portion of central nervous system voluntary control conscious
where is cardiac muscle found?
in heart
what are composed of muscle fibers
ventriclers and atria
contractions that force blood out of heart produces ?
joints are classified how
by how much the bones they connect can move against one another
which joints don't move
immovable or fibrous joints
what is between edges of plates in skull?
fibrous joints fibrous tissue
where else are fibrous joints?
hold teeth in jawbone
dors/o dorsal
my/o myalgia
troph/o dystrophy
two double
bi- biceps
what are ligaments?
strong connective tissues connect bone to bone form joints
why are ligaments important in joint stability?
hold bones in joint together
describe ligaments
more elastic fibers than tendons more stretchy
what is a fluid filled sac what does it do
bursa help cushion joint found between bones ligaments
what is a bursa filled with?
synovial fluid
another name for joint
what is a joint
where two bones come together
how many joints are there?
over 100
most joints are movable which aren't
sutures between cranial bones
what are movable joints called
synovial joints
what are they characterized by
presence of a closed space or cavity
what is it called between bones
synovial cavity
what is a joint lubricating substance
synovial fluid
where is synovial fluid produced
by the membranes
what do knee joints contain
discs of cartilage
another name for these discs of cartilage
what do menisci act as
swabs to spread synovial fluid into joint help to stabilize joint
what usually tears in contact sports?
menisci knee cartilages
singular form of menisci
some synovial movable joints
ball and socket
ball and socket
shoulder and hip
hands fingers feet toes
thumb only
vetebral column
elbow and knee
wrist and ankle
compound joint between 1st and 2nd vertabrae atlas and axis bones
atlantoaxial joint
articulation between sternum and manubrium
manubriosternal joint
stretches and increases tension on the vocal ligaments between cricoid cartilage and thyroid cartilage
cricothyroid joint
located between sternum and ribs
sternocostal joints
The joint that opens and closes your mouth
temporomandibular joint TMJ
between lenticular process and head of stapes ear cartilaginous young bony adults
incudostapedial joint
saddle shaped in ear between anvil and stirrup
joint occurs between facets of interior and superior articular processes of adjacent vertebra
zygapophyseal joint
what do the cranial sutures do?
skull makde of five bones held togethr by fibrous material sutures remain open while growing to give brain room to grow in all directions
what happens if one or more closes or fuses before the brain has finished growing?
craniosynostosis occurs (synostosis cranial stenosis)
what happens to the head if craniosynostosis occurs
brain will grow where there is no pressure and result ina misshapen head or face
suture on top of head extending from soft spot to back of head
sagittal suture
how does the brain grow
forced to grow forwanrd and bakward
what is the condition known as when the sagittal suture stops growing
which suture is on the side of head from soft spot to in front of ear
premature closure leads to what condition
anterior plagiocephaly
what will the head look like with anterior plagiocephaly
forehead to flatten on affected side elevation of eye socket deviated nose and slanted skull
what is elevatioon of eye socket known as
vertical dystopia
which suture is located between soft spot and root of nose
metopic suture
what is early closure of suture called
what does trygonocephaly look like?
pointed foreheads midline ridge triangularly shaped skull and eyes too close together
when eyes are too close together what is it called?
least common premature closing leads to flattening of back of head protrusion of mastoid bone lowering of ear skull tilt sideways
what is the condition called for lambdoidal premature closing
posterior plagiocephalus
ligament superior to inferior along surfasesa of vertebral
bodies directly posterior to thoracic and abdominal viscera
anterior longitudinal ligament
connects pinous processes of two adjacent vertabra a syndesmosis
interspinous ligament
elastic fibers joins laminae of adjacent vertebrae yellow paired penetrated for spinal taps
ligamenta flava
extends posteriorly from base of skull to 7th cervical vertebraprovides muscle attachments to cervical spoinous processes
nuchal ligament
not penetrated by spinal tap broader at intrvertebral disks and narrow at vertebral bodies scalloped edge
posterior longitudinal ligament
begins at c7 vertebrae and ends at midsacral ssegmental olevel muscle attachment site connects tips of spinous processes thoracic and lumbar vertebrae
supraspinous ligament
encircles head of radius provides restraint against distal dislocation of radius
annular ligament
connects coracoid process to acromion of scapula support for head of humerus
coracoacromial ligaments
2 parts connects uper surface of coracoid process to under surfac of clavicle
coracoclavicular ligament
what are the names of the 2 parts?
posteromedialpart conoid ligament and trapezoid ligament
attaches to clavicle to the first rib strong sternoclavicular joint that seldom dislocates
costoclavicular ligament
connects the humerus to scapula
glenohumeral ligament middle
humerus to scapula
glenohumeral ligament superior
connect carpal bones prevent excessive movement of snoviasl polane joints
intercarpal ligaments dorsal
intercapal ligaments palmar
cartilage caps medial end of rib
costal cartilage
connect costal cartilages of ribs 1-7 with sternum
radiate sternocostal ligaments
connects anterior superior iliac spine with pubic tubercle Poupart's ligament
inguinal ligament
connects thepubic tubercle with pecten of pubis
lacunar ligament
thickening of fascia on the pecten of pubis cooper's ligamenet in breast too
pectineal ligament
superior to inferior suracesa of vetebral bodies
anterior longitudinal ligament
attached to spenoid bone to mandibular foramen
sphenomandibular ligament
from styloid process of temporal bone to ramus of mandible
stylomandibular ligament
broad and thin membranous bands from front and back of sternal ends of cartilages of true ribs to sternum
radiate sternocostal ligaments
the gliding joint formed by the outer extremity of the clavicle and the inner margin of the acromion process of scapula
acromioclavicular joint
between the distal end of radius and proximal row of carpal bones
wrist joint radiocarpal joint
ginglymoid joint ginglymus hinge joint
interphalangeal joint between phalanges of fingers or toes
clavicle connects to the sternum in the middle of chest at top
sterno clavicular joint
joint cconnecting arm with the torso shoulder rotator cuff
glenohumeral joint
where the radius and ulna connects
radioulna joint
cubital joint compound hinge joint between humerus and bones of forearm
radio carpal joint
between coracoid process and clavicle
coracoclavicular joint
synovial joint between poximal and distal rows of carpal bones
midcarpal joint
connects trapezium with metacarpal of thumb flexion/extensin fingers
carpometacarpal joint
connects metacarpal head to proximal phalanx
metacapophalangeal joints
Name some ligaments upper region
radiate sternocostal
anterior logitudinal
some ligaments thoracic region
glenohumoral superior inferior middle
encircles radius holds radius and ulna- ligament
ligament reinforces capsule of sternoclavicular joint
interclavicular ligament
ligament that connects coracoid process to the acromion of the scapula
coracoacromial ligament
fibrous membrane that connects the interosseous borders on the shafts of the radius and the ulna
interosseous membrane forearm
ligament that connects the upper surface of the coracoid process to the under surface of the clavicle
coracoclavicular ligament
ligament spanning the lateral side of the elbow joint
radial collateral ligament, elbow or wrist
ligament that attaches the clavicle to the first rib
costoclavicular ligament
ligament that reinforces the capsule of the sternoclavicular joint
sternoclavicular ligament
ligament that connects the metacarpophalangeal joints 2-5 on their palmar surface
transverse metacarpal ligament, deep
ligamnt that spans the suprascapular notch of the scapula
transverse scapular ligament, superior
ligament that reinforces articular casule on medial side of wrist
ulnar collateral ligament, wrist
ligament connects the humerus to scapula
glenohumeral ligament, inferior middle superior
articulation between distal tibia medial malleolus
ankle joint
articulation between head of metatarsal and base of phalanx
metatarsophalangeal joint Bunion
articultion between patella and femur
articulation between os coxae and head of femur
hip joint
articulations betweendistal row of tarsal bones and and proximal ends of metatarsal bones
tarsometatarsal joints
articuolation between femoral condyles and tibial condyles
knee joint
iliac spine to femoral
iliofemoral joint
articulation beween ala of sacurm and auricular surface of ilium
sacroiliac joint
articulations between proximal and middle phalanges
interphalangeal joints
articulations bewtween distal row of tarsal bones and proximal ends of metatarsal bones
glding tarsometatarsal joints
fibrocartilage rim around the acetabulum
acebabular labrum
ligament connects plantar surface of clacaneus cuboid and bases of 3 metatarsal bones
long plantar
arch passes from calcaneus to talus to navicular to cueiforms to metatarsal
longitudinal arch of foot
ligament connects calcaneus with cuboid on thir plantar surfaces
plantar calcaneocuboid ligament
ligament connecting posterior aspect of intercondylar eminence with lateral of medial femoral condyle
anterior cruciate
ligament of knee joint connecting the medial epicondyle of femur with medial condyle of tibia
tibial collateral
ligament connecting medial malleolus of tibia with sustentaculum tali
tibiocalcaneal ligament
part of deltoid ligment connecting medial malleolus of tibia with the navicular reinforces ankle joint
circularly oriented ligamentous fibers reinforce capsule of hip joint hod head of femur in acetabulum
zona orbicularis
reinforces ankle joint ligament connects lateral malleolus of fibula with talus
anterior talofibular ligament
ligament connects distal ends of tibia and fibula anteriorly
anterior tibiofibular
part of deltid ligament connecting medial malleolus of tibia with talus
anterior tibiotalar ligament
reinforces ankle joint ligament connects lateral malleolus of fiula with calcaneus
calcaneofibular ligament
reinforces ankle joint shape of greek letter delta 4 parts connecting malleolus of tibia talus navicular and calcaneus
deltoid ligament
collateral ligament of knee connects lateral epicondyle of femur with head of fibula
fibular collateral ligament
like an inverted Y connects anterior inferior iliac spine to anterior capsule of hip joint known as libament of Bigelow
iliofemoral ligament
connects articular capsule of hip joint ischium to posterior femoral neck
ischiofemoral ligament
known as spring ligament complex set of intertarsal gliding synovial joints supports longitudinal arch of foot
calcaneonavicular ligament
connecting posterior aspecto of intercondylar eminence with lateral surface of medial femoral cndyle
posterior cruciate ligament
ligament connects lateral malleolus of fibula with talus reinforces ankle
posterior talofibular ligament
connects distal end s of tibia and fibula posteriorly
posterior tibiofibular ligament
part of deltoid ligament connecting medial malleolus of tibia with talus reinforces ankle
posterior tibiotalar ligament
connects pubic portion of rim of bony acetabulum to femoral neck
pubofemoral ligament
reinforces the medial surface of articular capsule of knee attached to medial meniscus
tibial collateral ligament
part of deltoid ligament connecting medial malleolus of tibia with sustentaculum tali reinforces ankle joint
tibiocalcaneal ligament
ligament spans acetabular notch near the rim of acetaulum
acetabular ligament
bursa between patellar ligament and tibia reduces friction
infrapatellar bursa deep
subcutaneous bursa overlying the patellar ligament
infrapatellar bursa superficial
intra-articular disc within the knee joint located between lateral femoral condyle an d tibial condyle
lateral meniscus
fibrocartilage intra-articular disc within the knee joint
medial meniscus
subcutaneous busa overlying the patella synovial membrane inflammation housemaid's knee prepatellar bursitis
prepatellar bursa
superior extension of synovial memebrane of knee joint reduces friction; between quadriceps femoris tendon and femur
suprapatellar bursa
muscle type associated with skeletal movement
skeletal muscle
comprises the largest single organ of the body
skeletal muscle
40% of body made of
skeletal muscle
How many different muscles are there?
over 650
How do skeletal muscles work?
in pairs to produce movement
Describe how muscles are connected to body
muscles arise on one bone and attach to another bone
what must they cross
a joint
when one muscle contracts what happens
its opposite relaxes,which allows a joint to bend
skeletal muscles have an abundant suply of what
blood vessels and nerves
what is the primary function of skeletal muscle
skeletal muscles are under the control of what
peripheral portion of the central nervous system voluntary control
gluteus maximus
gluteus minumus
adductor longus
adductor brevis
rhomboid quadrangular
neck area jugular
spinalis thoracis
spine and thorax
rotary cuff location these 3
rectus abdominis
superior oblique
transverse abdominus
crosswise direction of muscle fibers these 3
What are Action muscles
abductor adductor extensor flexor
number of origins
biceps 2
triceps 3
ligaments connect what
bone to bone
tendons are what
tissues that connect muscle to bone
Do tendons have elasticity?
what areflattened or ribbon-shaped tendons
describe aponeuroses
occur in sheets, are pearly white, glistening and similar to tendons
describe tendons and aponeuroses
connected on one side with muscles and movable structures on the other side
what movable structures
bones and cartilage
where do tendons grow out of?
How are tendons named?
by thier sponsoring muscle
primary function of skeletal muscles
skeletal mucsle is under ____ control
muscles must cross
a joint
decreases the angle of a joint as in bending hinge joints
opposite of flexion movement increases thew angle of joint
movement away from midline of body
(abducted run away!)
movement toward bidline of body
adduction (add with your fingers bring toward body)
movement of bone around a longitudinal axis
example of rotation
ball and socket joint
moving the limb forms a cone or circle
example of circumduction
arms legs and fingers
rotating palm downward
rotating palm upward
turning sole of foot inward
turning sole of foot outward
pointing foot upward
pointing the foot downward
plantar flexion
when muscles contract across joints what movements are initated
voluntary movements
partially movable joints

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