# Argumentation & debate

## Terms

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Inductive Reasoning
based on probability; from specific to general
Deductive Reasoning
based on logic; from general to specific. Uses syllogistic form.
Generalization
using facts and arriving at a general conclusion based on those facts
Overgeneralization
reaching conclusions from a limited number of facts (look for words like "all," "every," and "always").
Extrapolation
prediction based on a generalization
Thin-Entering-Wedge

a prediction based on an overgeneralization.

Cause and Effect:
occurrence is the direct cause of a resulting occurrence
False Cause to Effect:

manipulation of apparent causes/ dependence on circumstancial  reliance on superstitions and biased use of facts. Making a Associative Reasoning

valid when the subject assumes responsibility for being associated with the group or person
Guilt by Association
the assumption that if X is associated with Y, then X must be like Yin all or many ways
"Getting Personal":
the legitimate use of relevant past personal information to make evaluations of individuals

attacking the source of a statement rather than the statement itself.

Testimony
turning to experts for their knowledge
Negative Testimony
assumes that since the person said something, it is true. Often these individuals are biased, overextend their authority and lack expertisein specific fields
Use of Statistics

numerical backup that is current, accurate, and properly interpreted.

Poor Use of Statistics
numerical backup that is outdated, poorly conducted, and interpreted incorrectly; therefore, distorting
Either-Or:
the suggestion that a complex problem can be stated as a choice between 2, and only 2, diametrically opposed positions
Circular Reasoning:

A is true because of B, and B is true because of A.  Presenting an argument in such a way that no real proof is given, rotating the or

Irrelevant Argument

inserting into the reasoning process information or proof that has nothing to do with the issue being discussed.

Self-Evident Truths
the sender/receiver is supposed to accept the proposed idea as fact, as         something so apparent that it is
Scapegoating

blaming someone else, usually a subordinate or less powerful person

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ARGUMENTATIVE STRATEGIES

To develop your solution as being the practical, desirable, or workable.

CONTRACT
Argument between rhetor and audience.  Established in the introduction.  Establish the subject matter, and urgency, and the crite
ARGUMENT BY ELIMINATION

List the alternatives, but knock them out one at a time until your solution is the only one left.

ANTITHESIS

Only two options are given for the solution, and they are the exact opposite of each other.  I.e. We're all rich or we're all

PROLEPSIS

Anticipatory refutation of opposition.  Also known as the possible        rebuttal.  You anticipate the other side's ar

SLIPPERY SLOPE

Your argument takes on a snowball effect to the extreme. For example, "If we legalize marijuana, then

PRECEDENT
Tell how your solution worked elsewhere.  For example, marijuana is legal in Holland.
ANALOGY

Compare parallel situations, from familiar to less familiar.  For example, the US’s intervention in Bosnia is like parents settl

DICHOTOMIES

Choose one of the following to develop or explain your argument:

Means/End;

RHETORICAL QUESTION

You wouldn't let your children kill each other, would you?  Not always used as an attention-getting opening, may be used as the cl

OCCULTATION
Saying in your speech what you're not going to say.  It's effect, of course, is that you are saying it.  "I'm no
HYPERBOLE
Gross Exaggeration
SETENTIA
Maxim or an authoritative statement that is part of the social wisdom.  "A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush" or "Nothing ve
HASTY GENERALIZATION

What is true about a part is true about all parts, or what is true for one will be true for another.  For example, Jimi Hendrix perfor

POST HOC, ERGO PROCTOR HOS

(After the fact, therefore because of the fact)  The Cowboys won three Super Bowls after Clinton was elected, so they won because Clin

BANDWAGON
The crowd is all doing it, so you'd better not be left behind!
NON SEQUITAR

The argument does not follow or it's not in sequence.  For example, Socrates is mortal because I was born in Ohio.

FALSE DILEMMA

Failed antithesis.  You are either a democrat or a republican.  We know there are other options.

Slippery Slope - ridiculous
Have you stopped stealing from your boss?  Assumes the negative behavior is already taking place.
STRAWPERSON

Failed prolepsis.  Refute a weak argument or granting a weak argument in your speech.  E.g., I know some of you say

QUOTING OUT OF CONTEXT

Movie reviews:  "Incredible!  Well Acted!"  From

Attacking the other's character and not his ideas.  Seen a lot at the Presidential campaigns.

SCARE TACTICS

"If you don't do this...".  Sometimes used in religion.