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chapter 6 psych


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a relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience; physiological event
learning changes
maturation and experience, short term changes in performance and actual learning
3 ways we learn
classical conditioning, operant conditioning, observational learning
classical conditioning
discovered by Ivan Pavlov in which a neutral stimulus comes to bring about a response after it is paired with a stimulus that naturally brings about that response
classical conditioning terms
Unconditioned Stimulus (US), Unconditioned Response(UR), Conditioned Stimulus(CS), Conditioned Response(CR)
Unconditioned Stimulus (US)
a stimulus that produces a response without prior learning
Unconditioned Response (UR)
an unlearned response to the unconditioned stimulus
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
elicits the conditioned response after being paired with the unconditioned stimulus
Conditioned Response (CR)
the learned response to the conditioned stimulus that occurs after CS-US association
3 ways classical conditioning is important in human emotional learning
Phobia, sexual fetish,
unreasonable fear
sexual fetish
sexual urges and fantasies centered around non living objects
stimulus generalization
occurs when a conditioned response gollows a stiulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus
Stimulus discrimination
ability to differentiate between stimuli - different bells
occurs when a previously conditioned response decreases in frequency and eventually disappears; nightmares
spontaneous recovery
re-emergence of an extinguished conditioned response after a period of rest
interpretation of classical conditioning
not reflex, information theory - rescorla
operant conditioning
voluntary response is weakened or strengthened, depending on its favorable response
Edward Thorndike
cat in puzzle box, responses for satisfying more (more repeated)
B.F. Skinner
reinforcement - if consequence is something you want you'll do it again
primary reinforcer
satisfies biological need and works naturally
secondary reinforcer
becomes reinforcing because of its association with a primary reinforcement (money=value)
positive reinforcement
response is followed by a stimulus - study = good grades
negative reinforcement
removes stimulus or avoids stimulus - beeping = seatbelt
decreases probability it will happen again
positive punishment
unpleasant - decreases
negative punishment
removal of something pleasant decreases probability
continuous reinforcement
everytime; always money at atm
partial reinforcement
intermittant; do not always get it - best on behavior
fixed interval schedule
paid on saturday; rates of response low
variable interval
time between reinforcement varis around some average rather than being fixed
fixed ratio schedule
given after certain amount of responses
variable ratio schedule
given after varying number of responses rather than fixed number; commission
time based
time; fishing
fixed ratio
# of responses - commission
variable ratio
# of responses - slot machine
shaping behavior
teaching a complex behavior by rewarding closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
used to teach a complex sequence of behaviors; dog rolling over, last behavior=best behavior
S-R theory
idea that responses are mechanical and don't require conscious processes
latent learning
expectancies, a new behavior is learned but not demonstrated until reinforcement is provided for displaying it
cognitive map
an organisms mental representation of the structure of physical space
insight learning
a form of problem solving in which an organism develops a sudden understanding of a problems solution
observational learning
learning through observing behavior of another person called a model

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