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Chemistry Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry


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Define: Exchange (Metathesis) Reactions
A reaction in which the reactants exchange ions.
Why do scientists use a double arrow reaction indicator?
TO indicate the reaction can go either way and to represent the ionization of a weak electrolyte.
What are the molecular compounds that contribute ions in an aqueous solution called?
Of what is a molecular compound usually formed?
Non-Metallic elements
Define: Electrolyte
A substance whose aqueous solution contains ions.
Define: Solute
The thing dissolved by a solvent.
Define: Acid-Based Reaction
Reaction in which H+ ions are transferred between reactants.
Define: Precipitation Reaction
Reaction in which soluble reactants yield an insoluble product.
Define: Aqueous Solution
Solution in which water is the dissolving medium.
Define: Acid
Substance that ionizes in an aqueous solution to form hydrogen ions increasing the number of H+ ions. A proton donor.
Define: Monoprotic Acid
A substance that yields one hydrogen ion per molecule of acid.
Define: Diprotic Acid
A substance that yeilds two H+ ions per molecule of acid.
Define: Base
A substance that acts as a H+ receptor.
What type of ions do bases produce in water?
Hydroxide ions (OH-)
Name three common bases.
NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH)2
Name a base that does not include hydroxide ions.
Ammonia (NH3)
Define: Strong Base, Strong Acid
Both completely ionize in a solution
Name six strong acids
HCl, HBr, HI, HClO3, HNO3, H2SO4
Name: HCl
Hydrochloric Acid (strong)
Name: HBr
Hydrobromic Acid (strong)
Name: HI
Hydroiodic Acid (strong)
Name: HClO4
Perchloric Acid (strong)
Name: HNO3
Nitric Acid (strong)
Name: H2SO4
Sulfuric Acid (strong)
Name 8 strong bases
LiOH, NaOH, KOH, RbOH, CsOH, Ca(OH)2, Sr(OH)2, Ba(OH)2
What are the two steps to determine whether a compound is a strong electrolyte?
1. Determine if an ionic compound. If not..
2. Identify if it is a strong acid.
Define: Neutralization Reaction
A reaction between an acid and a base that produces water and salt.
Name two bases besides OH- that react with H+ to form molecular compounds.
CO3 2- (carbonate), S 2-Sulfide
What do carbonates and bicarbonates react with acids to create?
First Carbonic Acid H2CO3 (which is unstable) and then Carbon Dioxide gas
Define: Oxydation Reduction (redox) Reaction
A reaction in which electrons are transferred between reactants.

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