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CIS 201 chp1-2


undefined, object
copy deck
the equipment of a computer system
programs that are written by programmers and tell a computer what to do
devices that include keyboards and mice; through these devices, data can enter the computer system
organizing data, checking them for accuracy, or performing mathematical operations on them
the piece of hardware that processes data
central processing unit
languages such as visual basic, pascal cobol, java, etc. that are used to write programs
programming laguages
consists of the rules of a language
a computer's on-off circuitry language
machine language
translates high-level language into machine language and tells you if have used a programming laguage correctly
compiler or interpreter
when you give instructions to a computer in a specific sequence,without leaving any instructions out or adding extraneous instructions
develop the logic
occurs when the computer actually uses the written or compiled program
running or executing
memory, main memory, or primary memory
internal storage
permanent storage outside the main memory of the machine, on a device such as a floppy disk, hard disk, or magnetic tape
external storage
when you store a program on some nonvolatile medium
the sequnce of steps necessary to solve any problem
writing the statements in a programming language
programming languages that are english-like are
high-level programming languages
an error in language or grammar
syntax error
errors that occur when incorrect instructions are performed, or when instructions are performed in the wrong order
logical errors
the entire set of actions an organization must take to switch over to using a new program or set of programs
represents the relationship of databases, files, records, fields, and characters
data hierarchy
letters, numbers, and special symbols such as 'a' '7' '$'
a single data item, such as lastname, streetaddress, or annualsalary
groups of fields that go together for some logical reason
groups of records that go together for some logical reason
holds a group of files, often called TABLES, which together serve the information needs of an organization
questions that pull related data items together from a database in a format that enhances efficient mangement decision making
a pictorial representation of the logical steps it takes to solve a problem
an english-like representation of the logical steps it takes to solve a problem
represented as parallelograms in flowcharts
input and output symbols
represented as rectangles in flowcharts
processing symbols
arrows that connect the steps in a flowchart
a memory device used for hard to remember things
the format for naming variables in which multiple-word variable names are run together, and each new word within the variable name begins with an uppercase letter
camel casing
a repeating flow of logic without an ending
infinite loop
testing a value is called
making a decision
diamond shaped symbol in a flowchart that represents a decision
decision symbol
a yes-or-no decision, with 2 possible outcomes
binary decision
a preselected value that stops the execution of a program
dummy value or sentinel value
many programming languages use this term when talking about an end-of-data file marker
a flowchart symbol used when limited page size forces you to continue the flowchart on the same or following page
stores the result of any calculation performed on its right side to the named location on its left side
assignment statement
the = sign is the________, it always requires the name of a memory location to the left side
assignment operator
a specific numeric value
numeric constant
these hold numeric values
numeric variables
____, _____, or_____ hold character values
character, text, or string variables
a statement that names a variable and tells the computer which type of data to expect
a declaration
values that are whole number, numeric variables
integer values
values that are fractional, numeric variables that contain a decimal point
floating-point values
the process of naming program variables and assigning a type to them is called
making declarations or declaring variables
the technique that focuses on the procedures that programming create
procedural programming
a technique that focuses on objects, or things, and desribes their features or attributes, and their behaviors
object-oriented programming
snarled, unstructured program logic
spaghetti code
a basic unit of programming logic; each is a sequence, selection, or loop
a structure
with a ____ _____, you perform an action or event, and then you perform the next action in order.
sequence structure
with a ____, or ____ _____, you ask a question, and depending on the answer you take one of two courses of action
selection, or decision structure
another name for a selection structure
define one action to be taken when the tested condition is true, and another action when it is false
dual-alternative ifs
take action on just one branch of the decision
single-alternative ifs
the branch of a decision in which no action is taken
the null case
with a ____ _____, you ask a question; if the answer requires an action, you perform the action and ask the original question again
loop structure
_____ and _____ are alternate names for a loop structure
repition and iteration
a loop in which a process continues while some condition continues to be true
a do while loop
attaching structures end-to-end is called
stacking structures
placing a structure within another structure is called
nesting the structures
a group of statements that execute as a single statement
a block
a _______ OR ______ is the first read or data input statemnt in a program
priming read or priming input
you can use ______ _____ when there are several distinct possible values for a single variable you are testing, and each requires a different course of action
case structure
in a ___ ____ ____, you ensure that a procedure executes at least once; then, depending on the answer to the controlling question, the loop may or may not execute additional times
do until loop

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