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GI Pathology


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this kind of ulcer is associated with impaired mucosal resistance to autodigestion, low SES, and aspirin alcohol and drugs
Gastric Ulcer
This kind of ulcer is associated with increased acid and pepsin, rapid gastric emptying and blood group O
Duodenal Ulcer
Associated with autoantibodies to parietal cells and intrinsic facrot.
Autoimmune gastritis
can lead to achlorhydria and pernicious anemia
associated with gastric carcinoma and lymphoma of MALT
H. pylori
cause characteristic flank-shaped ulcers on the intestinal mucosa nad is commonly carried to the liver where it causes abscesses.
Toxin-secreting pathogen that causes psuedomembranous colitis after antibiotic administration
Diagnosis of this malabsorption syndrome can be made most easily by detection of anti-transglutaminase antibodies in serum
Celiac sprue
Malabsorption syndrome characterized by steatorrhea and B12 and folate deficiency. There is prominent inflammation with eosinophils and edema in villi
Tropical sprue
Risk factors for this neoplasm inculde dietary nitrates, low intake of fruits and vegetables, H-pylori, alcohol abuse, smoking, and blood group A
Gastric Adenocarcinoma
Characterized by signet ring cells (have cytoplasmic mucin)
Diffuse type gastric adenocarcinoma
(Intestinal type - prevalent form in high incidence areas)
Krukenberg tumors
bilateral ovarian metastases
Rarest site of primary neoplasms and metastatic tumors
Small Intestine
patients with this syndrome develop colon cancer before 50, have predominantly right-sided carcinomas, and have a family history of colon carcinomas
Hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer (Lynch syndrome)
Tumors are often poorly differentiated or mucinous types
Side of tumor location with annular, constricting tumors that cause obstruction
side of tumor location with polypoid, fungating tumors that cause blood loss but not obstruction
5 mechanisms for GERD
defective esophageal clearance, LES dysfunction, hiatal hernia, delayed gastric emptying, increased abdominal pressure
main mechanism for reflux
Transient LES relaxation
most numerous of the gastric glands - produce acid, intrinsic factor, and most gastric enzymes
Pyramidal lookin cells predominate in deeper layers of oxyntic glands - secrete pepsinogen 1 and 2
chief cell
Syndrome of recurrent GI bleeding due to pancreatic endocrine tumor
Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome (gastrin-producing tumor)
Iron is absorbed here
fats, carbs, proteins, folate are absorbed here
proximal jejenum
B12, bile salts are absorbed here
terminal ileum
short chain fatty acids are absorbed here

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