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Soc. Ch's 17-20Po

Terms

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Political Action Committee (PAC)
An organization formed by a special-interest group, independent of political parties, to raise and spend money in support of political goals
State Church
A church formally allied with the state
Authority
Power that people perceive as legitimate rather than coercive
War
Organized, armed conflict among the people of two or more nations, directed by their governments
Profane
Included as an ordinary element of ordinary life
Charisma
Extraordinary personal qualities that can infuse people with emotion and turn them into followers
Democracy
A political system that gives power to the people as a whole
Charismatic Authority
Power legitimized by extraordinary personal abilities that inspire devotion and obedience
Rational-Legal Authority
Power legitimized by legally enacted rules and regulations AKA bureaucratic authority
Extended Family
A family consisting of parents and children as well as other kin AKA consanguine family
Polytheism
Belief in many gods
Faith
Belief based on conviction rather than on scientific evidence
Exogamy
Marriage between people of different social categories
Neolocality
A residential pattern in which a married couple lives apart from both sets of parents
Religiosity
The importance of religion in a person's life
Mainstreaming
Integrating students with disabilities or special needs into the overall educational program
Sacred
Set apart as extraordinary, inspiring awe and reverence
Monarchy
A political system in which a single family rules from generation to generation
Secularization
The historical decline in the importance of the supernatural and the sacred
Schooling
Formal instruction under the direction of specially trained teachers
Descent
The system by which members of a society trace kinship over generations
Power
The ability to achieve desired ends despite resistance from others
Pluralist Model
An analysis of politics that sees power as spread among many competing interest groups
Totalitarianism
A highly centralized political system that extensively regulates people's lives
Marxist political-economy model
An analysis that explains politics in terms of the operation of a society's economic system
Polygyny
Marriage that unites one man and two or more women
Monogamy
Marriage that unites two partners
Religion
A social institution involving beliefs and practices based on recognizing the sacred
Civil Religion
A quasi-religious loyalty binding individuals in a basically secular society
Matrilineal Descent
A system tracing kinship through women
Monotheism
Belief in a single divine power
Routinization of Charisma
The transformation of charismatic authority into some combination of traditional and bureaucratic authority
Politics
The social institution that distributes power, sets a society's goals, and makes decisions
Tracking
Assigning students to different types of educational programs
Political Revolution
The overthrow of one political system in order to establish another
Sect
A type of religious organization that stands apart from the larger society
Traditional Authority
Power legitimized by respect for long-established cultural patterns
Welfare State
A system of government agencies and programs that provides benefits to the population
Matrilocality
A residential pattern in which a married couple lives with or near the wife's family
Family
A social institution found in all societies that unites people in cooperative groups to care for one another, including any children
Government
A formal organization that directs the political life of a society
Education
The social institution through which society provides its members with important knowledge, including basic facts, job skills, and cultural norms and values
Functional Illiteracy
A lack of the reading and writing skills needed for everyday living
Incest Taboo
A norm forbidding sexual relations or marriage between certain relatives
Homogamy
Marriage between people with the same social characteristics
Polyandry
Marriage that unites one woman and two or more men
Special-Interest Group
People organized to address some economic or social issue
Military-Industrial complex
The close association of the federal government, the military, and defense industries
Patrilocality
A residential pattern in which a married couple lives with or near the husband's family
Church
A type of religious organization that is well integrated into the larger society
Cohabitation
The sharing of a household by an unmarried couple
Bilateral Descent
A system tracing kinship through both men and women
Polygamy
Marriage that unites a person with two or more spouses
Totem
An object in the natural world collectively defined as sacred
Endogamy
Marriage between people of the same social category
Power-Elite Model
An analysis of politics that sees power as concentrated among the rich
Kinship
A social bond based on common ancestry, marriage, or adoption
Infidelity
Sexual activity outside one's marriage
Patrilineal Descent
A system tracing kinship through men
Marriage
A legal relationship usually involving economic cooperation, sexual activity, and childbearing
Nuclear Family
A family composed of one or two parents and their children AKA conjugal family
Family violence
Emotional, physical, or sexual abuse of one family member by another
Denomination
A church, independent of the state, that recognizes religious pluralism
Fundamentalism
A conservative religious doctrine that opposes intellectualism and worldly accommodation in favor of restoring traditional, otherworldly religion
Terrorism
Acts of violence or the threat of violence used as a political strategy by an individual or a group
Animism
The belief that elements of the natural world are conscious life forms that affect humanity
Authoritarianism
A political system that denies the people participation in government
Ritual
Formal, ceremonial behavior
Nuclear Proliferation
The acquisition of nuclear weapons technology by more and more nations
Liberation Theology
The combining of Christian principles with political activism, often Marxist in character
Cult
A religious organization that is largely outside a society's cultural traditions

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