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Human Body Orientation Ch 1 marieb


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The Hierarchy of Structural Organization
chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, and the human organism itself.
organ systems in the body
integumentary (skin), skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, circulatory (cardiovascular and immune), respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems.
The Human Body Plan
we share with all other vertebrate animals: tube-within-a-tube body plan, bilateral symmetry, a dorsal hollow nerve cord, notochord and vertebrae, segmentation, and pharyngeal pouches.
dorsal cavity
subdivided into the cranial and vertebral cavities; • Dorsal body cavity
• Cranial cavity – houses the brain
• Vertebral cavity – inside vertebral column and contains the spinal cord
ventral body cavity,
subdivided into the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavites.
ventral cavity - visceral organs
visceral organs (heart, lungs, intestines, kidneys, etc.) and three serous cavities: pleural, pericardial, and peritoneal cavities. These slit-like cavities are lined by thin membranes, the parietal and visceral serosae. The serosae produce a thin layer of lubricating fluid that decreases friction between moving organs.
contains the heart surrounded by the pericardial sac and other major thoracic organs such as the esophagus & trachea,
Thorasic body cavity
heart and lungs
Serous cavities
Pleura, pericardium, and peritoneum
Parietal serosa
lines outer wall of the cavity; also called parietal pleura, parietal pericardium, or parietal peritoneum
Visceral serosa
covers visceral organs; also called visceral pleura, visceral pericardium, or visceral peritoneum
Mucous membranes
Mucous membranes are epithelial membranes that consist of epithelial tissue that is attached to an underlying loose connective tissue. These membranes, sometimes called mucosae, line the body cavities that open to the outside. The entire digestive tract is lined with mucous membranes. Other examples include the respiratory, excretory, and reproductive tracts.
Serous Membranes
line body cavities that do not open directly to the outside, and they cover the organs located in those cavities. Serous membranes are covered by a thin layer of serous fluid that is secreted by the epithelium. Serous fluid lubricates the membrane and reduces friction and abrasion when organs in the thoracic or abdominopelvic cavity move against each other or the cavity wall. Serous membranes have special names given according to their location. For example, the serous membrane that lines the thoracic cavity and covers the lungs is called pleura.
membranous lining of the upper body cavity and covering for the lungs .
The heart is enclosed in a double-layered, membranous sac known as the pericardium.
seperates thorasic from abdominal cavity
nasal & oral membranes
nasal membranes are composed of ciliated pseudostratified glandular columnar epithelium. Mucous membrane
stomach membrane
magnetic fields and radio waves, producing high-contrast images of soft body structures.
sonar images of developing fetuses and internal body structures.
Positron emission tomography radioisotopes in the body, locating areas of high energy consumption and high blood flow
CT Scan
improved X ray images that are computer enhanced for clarity, cross section to avoid overlapping images of adjacent organs.
sharp X ray images of blood vessels injected with a contrast medium.
cardiovascular and immune
heart and blood vessels

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