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Cells and Molecules 2


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2 Cell Types
Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
Prokaryotes are
Bacteria and Archea
Prokaryotes don't have a
True nucleus
Prokaryotes have
Cell wall, cell membrane, plasma, phospholipid bilayer, cytoplasm, ribosomes, flagella, pili,
Prokaryote Cell Wall is
made of peptidoglycan (bacteria) Archea is various
Prokaryote Cell membrane
define the inside outside of cell plasma
Prokaryote Plasma Membrane
functions as a selective barrier that allows sufficient passage of oxygen, nutriets, and wastes to service the entire volume of the cell
Prokaryote Cytoplasm
entire region between nucleus and plasma membrane
prokaryote cytosol
within plasma membrane semifluid where organnels are found
Where is DNA in Prokaryotic cell
Prokaryote Motion
Flagella, structure different than in euks
What do prokayotes use for attachment
Eukaryotic cells have
cell memrande, dna as genetic information, cytosol, ribosomes, organnels>membrande enclosed
Eukaryotic Nucleus
largest organnel inside euk cell, double membrane nuclear envelope has genetic info DNA, Chromatin DNA + PROTEINS pachaging of DNA
Eukaryotic Chromosomes
colored bodies inside nucleus of dividing cells, condensed chromatin
Eukaryotic Nuclear Pores
Made of proteins from opening channels in membranes so molecules can be transported in and out of nucleus
What comes out of nucleus
RNA comes out of nucleus
DNA Polymerase is
Enzymes that copy DNA
RNA Polymerase is
Enzymes that copy RNA
Transported polymerase inside nucleus?
Transported polymerase inside nucleus?
What is eukaryote nucleolus
Site of ribosomal RNA synthesis
Endoplasmic reticulum is
membranous labyrinth so extensive it accounts for more than half the total membrane in a eukaryotic cell
Rough ER (endoplasmic reticulum)
Ribosomes attached post translational modifications to protiein,
Smooth ER (endoplasmic reticulum)
no ribosomes attached
Golgi apparatus
endomembrane system sorting of macromolecules in cell
Internal membrane system includes
Nuclear envelope, E.r rough and smooth, lysosome, transport vessicles, central vacuole (plants only)
The lysosome is
a small membranse bound organneles containing digestive enzymes important in recycling prganelles and breaking down material brought in by phagocytosis, Example white blood cells kill bacteria or viruses
Central Vacuole
(endo membrane system) plant, fungi, yeast, large open aqueous environment, storage of molecules, aminoacids, pigments, toxins, ions, metabolic products
Why do Eukaryotic cells have membrane organelles?
Euks are larger, internal membranse increase surface area of membrane increase efficiency of moving molecules in the cell, seperate compartments for different functions
Peroxisome is
not part of endomembrane system, important for breaking down fatty acids, plants and animals, periodase =enzyme
Mitochondria and chloroplast
double membranse organelles important metabolic functions, own genetic information multiply
Endosymbiotn Theory
organelles were once fee living organism/bacteria, during evolution taken in by symbiotic relationship, now a dependent relationship
Mitochondria are the site of ATP sunthesis
source or cellular energy, plant and animals chloroplast site of photosynthesis, light energy harvested for photosynthesis
Cytoskeleton is
a network of fibers extending throuout the sytoplasm, give mechanical support to the cell and maintain it's shape
Actin is
microfilaments solid rods 7nm, also called actin filaments, that is what they are buitlt from
Intermediate filaments are
specialized for bearing tension, are a diverse class of cytoskeltal elements
Microtubules are
found in cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells, thickest shape and support the cell, shape and support, also serve as tracks along which organelles equipped with motor molecules can move
Cell junction is
connections between cells tissue
tight junction is
lock cells together, barrier that fluid can't get through
Desmosome is
anchoring junctions or snap junctions hold cells together, looser anchoring
Gap junction is
channel from one cell to the nect communication between cells through gap junction
plasmodesmata is
similar to gap junction because its a channel from one cell to the nest
Resolving power
Clarity of image
Transmission electron microscope sees
internal ultrastucture of cells
Scanning electron microcscope sees
detailed study of surface of specimen
cytology is
the study of cells
Cell fractionation is
take cells apart, seperate major organelles so their function can be studies, use centrifuge, pellet is large stuctures supernatant is small structires
Cytosol is
in cell membrane, semifluid where organneles are found
Prokaryotic cell DNA is
concentrated in the nucleoid, no membrane seperates this from rest of cell
Eukaryotic cell has a
true nucleus bounded by a membranouse nuclear envelope
Cytoplasm is
entire region between nucleus and plasma membrane, term also used for interior or prokaryotic cell
Eukaryotic cells are ____ than prokaryotes
Plasma membrane functions as a
selective barrier that allows sufficient passage of oxygen, nutrients, and wastes to service the entire volume of the cell
biological membranes consist of
a double layer of phspholipids and other lipids
Cellular respiration is
enzymes embedded in the membranous of the organnels called mitochondria
houses most of the cells DNA and the ribosomes which use information from the DNA to make protein
Nuclear envelope
encloses nucleus; seperating contents from the cytoplasm, double membrane, each a lipid bilayer
Nuclear latima is
a net like array of protein filaments (intermediate) that maintains the shape of the nucleus
Chromatin is
DNA organized along with protein into fibrous material called chromatin
Chromosomes are
thin coiled up chromatin fibers that became thick enough to be called chromasomes
Typical human cell has
46 chromasomes except for the sperm and egg which have 23
The nucleolus is
a mass of densely stained granules and fibers adjoining park of the chromatin
Ribosomes are
particles made of ribosomal RNA and protein are organelles that carry out protein synthesis; each compose of two subunits
Endomembrane system is
many different membranes of a eukaryotic cell related by direct physical ontinuity or transfer of membrane segments called vesicles
Endomembrande system includes
nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, varoius kinds of vacuoles and the plasma membrane
Smooth ER is
cytoplasmic surface lacking ribosomes
Rough ER is
ribosomes stud cytoplasmic surface of membrane
smooth ER functions in
synthesis of lipids, metabolism or carbs, detoxification of drugs and poisons
proteins covalently bonded to carbohydrate
Rough ER makes
secretory proteins and is a membrane factory that grows in place by adding proteins and phospholipids
Golgi apparatus is
center for manufacturing, warefhouse, sorting, shipping
Lysosome is
membrane bounded sac of hydrolytic enzymes that the cell uses to digest macromolecules
Phagosytosis is the
process where amoebas and other protists eat by engulfing smaller organisms or other food particles
contractile vacuoles
pump excess water out of the cell
central vacuole is
large in plant cells enclosed by tonoplast membrane
Mitochondria is
sites of cellular respiration, catabolic process that generates ATP by extraciting energy from sugars, fats, and other fuels with help of oxygen
Chloroplasts are
found only in plants, algae, are sites of photosynthesis
Mitochondria 2 membranes
phospholipid bilayer, outer is smooth inner on convoluted with infoldings called cristae
Mitochondrion inner membrane compartments
first is intermembrane space, narrow region between inner and outer membranes, second compartment is mitochondrial matrix enclosed by inner membrane
Plastids are
family of closelt related plant organnelses, chloroplasts is the the member
thylakoids are
inside chloroplast membranous system in form of flattened sac
granum is
thlakoids stacked like poker chips
Stroma is
fluid outside of thylakoids
proxisome is
specialized metabolic compartment bounded by a singe membrane
3 fibers make up cytoskeleton
microtubules, microfilament, intermediate filaments
Centrisome is
microtubules grow out from this, within the centrisome is a pair of centrioles
Flagella + cilia
specialized arrangement of microtubules is responcible for their beating
Basal body is
microtubule assembly of a cilium or flagellum in anchored by a basal body
Dynein is a
large protein makes up moto molecules extending from each microtubule doublet to next
Microfilament is
smallest of cytoskeleton fibers specialized for bearing tension
Myosin is
1000's of actin filaments arranged in parallel to one another along length of muscle cell, intergrated with thicker filaments made of a ptoein calles myosin
Pseudopodia is
which a cell craws along a surface by extending and slowing into cellular extensions
Cytoplasmic streaming is
circular flow of cytoplasm within cells
Cell wall is
one of the features a plant cell has that distinguishes it from an animal cell
Primary cell wall is
young plant cell, first secretion
middle lamella is
between primary walls of adjacen cells
Secondary cell wall is
between plasma membrane and primary wall, cell protection and support
Extracellular matrix (ECM) is
main ingredients are glycoproteins secreted by cells, most abundant glycoprotein is collagen, ECM is animals alternative to cell wall, some cells attach to ECM by fibronectius? that bind to receptor proteins called integrins that are built into plasma membrane
Tight juntions
membranes of neighboring cells are actually fused forming continuous belts around cell
fasten cell together into strong sheets
Gap junctions
provide cytoplasmic channels between adjacent animal cells

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