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Cells and Molecules


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What kind of Reaction is Hydrogen Bonding
It is a weak interation between moleculer compounds with nonpolar covalent bonds tend to be hydrophobic polar compounds hydrophilic
Stength of Bonds from covalent to van der waals
Heat of Vaporation for H20
High Heat of Vaporization, has cooling effect
Chemical solution is a homogeneous mixture
Chemical soultion is a homogeny mixture
Material disolved id
If solvent is h20 it is called
Aqueous solution
Water can dissolve
Ionic bonds and polar covalent
Carbon bonds with ...
Variations in Carbon Compounds
Length of chain, Shape, number and location of bonds, stucture
Geometric Isomer
Has same covalent partnersips but different spatial arrangements
Structural isomer
Has different covalent parnerships
Mirror images of each other
Hydroxyl Group
OH Alcohols sugars polar covalent
Carbonyl Group
Ketones Aldehydes, sugars, polar
Weekly acidic fatty acids lactic acids, polar
Slightly basic amines, amino acids,
Sulfhydral group
Thiol and amino acid cystene, stabilizes protein stucture
Phosphate group
nucleic acid, ATP weekly acidic polar
Methyl group
lipids, fats, fatty acid, non poloar INSOLUBE
Molecule, organelle, cell, tissue, organ, organism, hrydrogen, water, cell nucleus, heart muscle cell, heart muscle tissue, heart
Structure and function
aerodynamic bird wing
3 Kingdoms
Bacteria Archeaa Eukarya
Protista, fungi, plantea, anamalia
Substance that cannot be broken down into other substances
2 or more elements in fixed ratios
Smallest unit of matter that still retains properties of element
Neutron and proton mass
1 dalton
electron mass
1/1000 dalton
Radioactive isotope
nucleus decays sontaneously giving off particles of energy
chemical behavior determed by
electron outer shell
Covalent bond
shairing electons valence
2 or more atoms held together by atomic bonds
bondind capacity be careful
non polar covalent
equal sharing electrons between atoms
polar covalent
non equal sharing because of electronegativity difference
Ionic bonds
ionic compounds salts
Hydrogen bond electronegativity, how does the bond work
covalently bonded to one elctronegative atom and also attracted to another electronegative atom
chemical reactions are
making or breaking of chemical bonds
02 vs h electronegativity
o2 more elctronegative so electrons spend more time next to oxygen
h20 is a _____ molecule
Polar molecule
opposite ends have opposite charges
hydrogen bonds hold h20 together
Surface tension
how difficult it is to stretch or break surface of a liquid
total kinetic quanitity of kinetic energy due to molecular motion
intensity of heat due to average kinetic energy
amount raise 1 g water i degree C
specific heat
Amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1g substance to chance i degree C
heat of vaporization
quanitity of heat needed to change 1g liquid to gas
evaporative cooling
evaporation causes surface to cool because hottest molecules escape
solution is a liquid that is
completely homogeneous mixture two or more substances
dissolving agent of solution
aqueous solution
water is the solvent
substance dissolved
Acid is a substance that
increases hydrogen ion concentration
Base is a substance that
reduces hydrogen ion concentration
buffers are
substances that minimize chance in concentration of oh and h
acid precipitation
rain snow fog more acidic that 5.6
Cell is ______%_____ the rest is _____
70-95% water and the rest is carbon
organic chemistry
branch that deals with carbon compounds
same moleculer formula but different structure
molecular covalent bonding weighing over 100000 daltons
long molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds
repeating units that make up polymer
condensation reaction
connected monomers two molecules are covalently bonded to each other throng loss of water molecule
dehydration rations
molecule lost is water
polymers disassembles to monomers, reverse of dehydration reaction
sugars and polymers, major source of nutrient obtain energy by breaking down sugars and carbs, cell uses sugar as carbon source to make other molecules, photosynthesize c02 plus h20 plus light
generally have some type of CH20 simple sugars glucose
2 monosaccharids joined by a glycosidic linkage
glycosidid linkage
covalent bond formes beteen two monosacharides by a dehydration reaction
macromolecules-polymers with a fe hundred or thousand monosaccarides joined by glycosidic linkages
storage poly saccaride of plants, is a polymer consisting entirely of glucose monomers
polymer of glucose that animals store
major component tough walls
carbohydrate used by exoskeletons
share trait little or no affinity with water
constructed of two smaller molecules glycerol and fatty acids
3 fatty acid tails instead of two
saturated fatty acids
saturated with hydrogen bonds no double bonds
unsaturated fatty acid
on or more double bonds
only two fatty acid tails rather than t
lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings
proteins functions
structureal support storage, transport other substances, signalling from one part of organism to other, movement and defense again foreign objects
polymers of amino acids
Molecules that combine to form a fat
saturated fatty acid, glycerol
molecule that would be attached to other monomers by a peptide bond
amino acid
molecule or groups that would combing to for a dna nuceotide
purine, phosphate, deoxyribose
molecules that are carbohydrates
gycer, aldehyde, deoxyribose
molecule that is a burine
monomer of a protein
amino acid
groups that would be joined by phosphodiester bonds
phosphates deoxyribose
3 Carbohydrates
Glycogen, cellulose, chitin
3 lipids
chloresterol, triaclyglycerol, steroid
3 proteins
collagen, hemoglobin, enzyme
nucleic acid
Rna Gene Dna
Primary is
one degree held together by covalent bonds and peptide bons encoded in DNA
Secondary Structure is
two degree local structure incolce come of protein by alpha helix and beta pleated sheet, held together by h bonding between atoms in polypeptide backbone
tertiary structure
3 degree overall 3d structure of a single polypeptide molecular interations between side groups R
4 degree 3d structure of all subunits in funtcional protein
Cells Reproduce....
harvest energy, resond to environment, evolve, develop, all organisms are made up of cells, come from other cells biogenesis
Viruses are
not cells, contain nuceleic acid surrounded by protein coat, RNA or DNA not both, need host cell, infect and reproduce
Prokaryote details
bacteria, archea, no true nucleus, smaller than eukary cells
fungi, yeast, protozoa, algea, plants and animals, 2-5picometers have true nucleus seperate compartment in cell membrande bound oranelles
seperate compartment inside a eukary cell, membrand bond, surrounded by phospholipids bilayers
cell sizes bacteria euk egg
bacteria .2um euk 100um egg 100mm
ability to see two distinct points shorter the wavelength greater the resolution 1000 better with electron microscope than light, but organisms die`
cell fractionation
break tissue homoginization seperate component by centrifuge, bigger go down at lower speed that smaller
Polysaccharides are
many sugars linked together by glycosidic linkages, starch, polsaccharide, glucoseA14, cellulose B 14
Startch Functions
store carbs for energy, carbon skeleton breaks down starch east, cellulose plants structural carbs plants cell wall reesisten to enzymatic digestion
nucleic acids
polymers of nuceotides, dna, rna, dna to rna to protein information flow dogma
nitro base dna letters
nitro base rna letters
protein functions in cell
connective tissue, protein collagen, skin protein keratin
protein storage of nutrients
amino acids
protein transport
hemoglobin transports 02 remove c02 in blood protein at cell membrande that transport glucose other nutrients in cell
protein cell to cell signalling
receptors receive signals are protein hormone protein insulin
protein cellular responces to chemical stimuli
signalling in nervous system, receptors proteing ion channels proteins
protein cell movement
contractile protein, actin, cytoskeleton, myosin, muscle contractions, flagella microtubule protein
protein antibodies, immunoglobin
proteins of immune system that defent organism against infection, bacteria of viruses
protein enzymes
usually protein, catalyzy biochemical reactions
3 ionic states for amino acid
cation more acidic, dipolar ion/zwitter ion, anion basic
polypeptide chain made or
carboxyl group lined to an amine group
4 majoy classes of macromolecules
lipids and fats, carbohydrates, necleic acid, proteins,
lipid and fats 3 types
phopholipids, tiglycerols, steroids
carbohydrates range from
simple sugars to large molecules
Nucleic Acid is
DNA RNA nucleotides ATP adenosine tiphosphate
Proteins are simply
Polermization is a
condensation reaction covalentyl linked together remove h20
Lipids are
phospholipis, steroids, insoluble
carbohydrates are
disaccharids, polysaccharise, simple sugars and monosaccharidees
Fats are
glycerol and three fatty acids linkes by ester linkage
fat functions
store energy, more compact and efficient than carbs, cusion organs, insulate body
phopholipid is found
in plants and animal cells, bacterial key in cell membrane, glycerol, two fatty acid ester linkage from bilayers
sterols and steroids have
different functional groups for different ones have 4 carbon rings found in cell membrane in phopholipid bilayer, hydrophobic soluble in fat and oil and stuff only
triose looks like
3 carbons glyceraldehyde
pentose looks like
five carbons ribose
hexose looks like
6 carbons glucose
a disaccharide is
2 monosaccharides linked by a condensation reaction (dehydration) covalent bond between 2 sugars glycosidic linkage
Isotopes have different
netron amount
98% of living matter
Ionic bondin
not sharing electrons, ions positive attracted to negative
why ice floats
hydrogens held at arms length 10% less dense
Formula for second concentration
Nitogenous bases are
ring structures with nitrogen and carbon, purines, pyrimidine adenine
A and guanineG
Cytosine C is found in
Thymine T is found in
DNA only
Uracil U is found in
RNA only
A 5 carbon sugar also called a
pentose sugar, deoxy ribose and ribosem DNA is missing oh at number 2 carbon
Phophate groups is a
polymer of nucleotides backbone sugar po4, sugar po4
Phophodiester bond looks like
RNA is one polynucleotide, one polymer chain, single stranded
DNA has 2 polynucleotides and double stranded with a sugar phophate backbone and two strand held together by h bonds
G bonds to
GC base pair has
three bonds
A bonds to
AT base pair has
two hydrogen bonds
A also bonds to
AU base pair has
2 hydrogen bonds
Information flow dogma

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