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What is the most common type of yeast genus?
what's the most important Candida?
Candida albicans
what type of infection does Candida albicans cause?
where is C. albicans normal flora?
skin, intestine, mucous membranes
what 2 diseases are charact. of C. albicans?
Thrush - in babies and Aids patients
What is thrush?
a yeast infection but in the mouth
What other diseases are caused by C. albicans other than thrush and vaginitis?
Skin infections
Onychomycosis - nails
Pneumococcal pneumonia allows 2ndary inf.
Diaper rash
What are the colonies of C. albicans like?
White, pasty and convex.
what does C. albicans grow on?
what do colonies look like on BA of C. albicans? think hollywood
starry because of hyphae growing out
what test identifies C. albicans?
Germ tube
if the germ test for C. albicans is negative, what then?
Corn meal agar
what characteristics on Cornmeal agar identify C. albicans?
TERMINAL chlamydospores
yeast cells
if on corn meal agar all you see is yeast cells, what is the I.D.?
what identifies only Candida species in general?
Pseudohyphae and yeast cells
what's the first step in diagnosing whether you're dealing with C. albicans or a yeast?
LPCB - lactol phenol cotton blue prep
on the LPCB, what would make you do a germ tube test?
seeing Pseudohyphae and yeast cells
what is assimilation tube testing?
tests for carbohydrates on yeast for further identification - not fermentation
what is Cryptococcosis?
an infection caused by inhalation of pigeon droppings - llatch really grossed out by it
what is the pathogenic mechanism of cryptococcosis?
it begins as a lung infection, disseminates to the brain/meninges.
what is the virulence factor of cryptococcus neoformans?

what does it cause again?

how id Cryptococcus neoformis identified?
-Capsule stain
what type of dye is used to i.d. cryptococcus neoformis?
india ink - a capsule stain
what specimen is used?
what is the colonial mophology of cryptococcus neoformis?

what test is v. good id?
pasty yeast colonies become mucoid and the colonies SAG. not usually seen in yeast.

Urea Positive
what used to be a parasite but now is a yeast?
pneumocystis carinii, aka jiroveci
in rodents, Pneumocystis species is:
in humans?
rodents = carinii
humans = jiroveci
what does Pneumocystis jiroveci/carinii cause?
PCP - interstial Plasma Cell Pneumonia
who is PCP often found in?
Aids pateints
what are the 4 symptoms of PCP?
-nonproductive cough
-Rapid respiration
what is a good diagnostic characteristic of pneumocystis carinni?
looks like punched in ping pong balls
what are 3 types of specimens used for testing PCP? what is NOT used? What is best?
Bronchoalveolar lavage- best
open lung biopsy
bronchial brush

never sputum
what are 2 stains used for pcp id?
silver stain
is serology useful for PCP id?
no; 2/3 of infants have antibody to it, and everybody else too
how many cells are there per yeast?
one - they are unicellular
how do yeast reproduce?
by budding
what 3 types of people are yeast infections especially common in?
people on broad-spec antibiots
people w/ indwelling catheters.
what are the 2 names of infections caused by C. albicans?
1. Candidiasis
2. Moniliasis
for yeasts OTHER than C. Albicans, what are the two broad categories of species (based on morphology)?
blastoconidia are i.d. as:
arthroconidia are i.d. as:
Blasto = Yeast sp. only
Arthro =
1. Blastoschizomyces
2. Geotrichum
3. Trichosporon
What are Mucocutaneous yeast infections treated with?
(3 drugs)
1. Nystatin
2. Clotrimazole
3. Ketoconazole
What are Systemic yeast infections treated with?
1. Amphotericin B
2. 5-Flourocytosine
3. Ketoconazole

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