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Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode) Developmental Biology


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Early technique for studying genetics of C. elegans
What are the three axes which form during development?
1) Anterior-Posterior
2) Dorsal-Ventral
3) Left-Right
What is the term for the development from zygote through organogenesis?
Which animal is good for developmental studies, but not genetic studies because it is difficult to raise many generations in the lab?
Sea Urchin
What is the total number of cells in the first larva stage of C. elegans?
Five hundred and fifty-eight (558)
What is the number of somatic cells in the adult of C. elegans?
Nine hundred and fifty-nine (959)
What's a three-word term explaining C. elegans' unchanging fate of each cell?
invariant cell lineage
From the two-cell to the four-cell stage, which two daughter cells come from the AB cell?
AB.a (anterior)
AB.p (posterior)
From the two-cell to four-cell stage, which two cells come from the P1 cell?
EMS (another founder cell)
What's the type of cleavage exhibited by C. elegans?
rotational holoblastic cleavage
What does Hoescht blue dye bind to?
In the wild type, into what cells do the P-granules migrate?
P cells
Localization of P-granules requires _____________ rather than microtubules.
What is used to cause the par-(1-4) mutants?
A temperature increase to 25Ëš C.
At the four-cell stage, the AB.p cell defines the future ______ side, while the EMS cell defines the future _______ side of the embryo.
dorsal, ventral
At the twelve-cell stage, the MS blastomere with AB.a descendant cells defines the _____ side of the embryos.
SKN-1 is a _____________ ______.
transcription factor
Mutations in skn-1 result in both EMS descendants developing into additional _ founder cells.
PIE-1 inhibits _____ function in the P2, resulting in the P2 adopting _______ fate.
SKN-1, somatic
Mutations in mex-1 make all four AB granddaughter cells convert into extra __ fate, developing extra __________ and ______ cells in the anterior.
MS, pharyngeal, muscle
Only recombination of the early isolated EMS cells with __ restuores the ability to form gut cells.
At the four-cells stage, the P2 produces a signaling molecule, MOM-2, the C. elegans homologue of a ___ protein.
MOM stands for ____ ________.
more mesoderm
The EMS cell produces a receptor protein, _____, the C. elegans homologue of the Wnt receptor, Frizzled.
The binding of MOM-2 from the P2 to the MOM-5 in the EMS instructs the EMS to divide into the _ cell (________ giving rise to the gut) and the __ cell (________ giving rise to the muscles).
E, endoderm, MS, mesoderm
APX stands for ________ _______ ______.
anterior pharynx excess
P2 also produces APX-1, the C. elegans homologue of the _____ proteins (ligant).
Both AB.p and AB.a cells produce GLP-1, the C. elegans homologue of the _____ proteins (receptor).
The binding of APX-1 from the P2 cell to the _____ in either AB.p or AB.a makes it develop into the ______ side of the embryo.
GLP-1, dorsal
GLP stands for ____ ____ _____________.
germ line proliferation

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