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Anatomy 241 Exam I chapter 1


undefined, object
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Structure= _ and _
form , function
Charles Darwin has been linked to evolution since the publication of his book _
Origin of Species
Evolution = _ and natural_
adaptation , selection
_ _ were the first to propose gradual changes in organisms over 2500 years ago. (i.e. _)
Greek philosophers, Amaximander
The father of biological classification.
Carolus Linnaeus
Carolus Linnaeous, Sweedish biologist who devised the _ _ for biological organisms that is still in use today.
classification system
Linnaeus firmly believed that species were _ and created originally as we find them today.
An english naturalists who formulated the concepts of "natural selection" at the same time as Darwin.
A.R Wallace
_ wrote a letter to _ explaining his ideas about evolution. His ideas were "stolen".
Wallace, Darwin
Darwin did not propose that species _, but the _ and _ for this evolutionary change.
evolved, conditions, mechanisms
Factors affecting evolution proposed by Darwin: (3)
1. Members of a species reproduce due to a high reproductive potential.
2. Competiton for declining resources.
3. Survival of the few ( and the fittest)
2 or more features which share a common ancestery (bird wing, squirrel arm)
2 or more features which perform a similar function, regardless of their ancestery (bird wing, bug wing)
2 or more features that only look alike (leaf shaped wing of insects, actual leaf)
Three seperate contributors to biological design.
Homoplogy, analogy, homoplasty
Give an example of each:
1. Homology
2. analogy
3. homoplasty

These are each seperate contributors to _
1. seal flipper, human hand
2. bird wing, bug wing
3. leaf shaped wing, actual leaf

biological design
the way in which an animal's body meets the planet is called
in _ symmetry a body is laid out equally from a central axis
in _ symmetry a body may only be divided into right and left parts
head end of an animal
anterior/ cranial
tail end of an animal
posterior/ caudal
front or belly
midline of the body
away form the midline
chest, supporting the forelimbs
pectorial region
hips, supporting the hindlimbs
pelvic region
body divided into dorsal and ventral sections
coronal plane
body divided into left and right sections
sagittal plane
body divided into anterior and posterior sections
transverse plane
the action or properity of a part as it works in an organism
refers to how the part is used in the environment
biological role
For feathers what is the:
1. biological role
2. function
1. insulation, aerodynamics, courtship
2. cover the body
when a structure or behavior possesses the necessary form and function before the biological role arises that it eventually serves it is said to be _
the course or path of evolution, may be summerized in graphic schemes called dendrograms.
family trees; summerized graphic schemes
evolution is observed to proceed in either _ or _.
phyletic gradualism, quantum evolution
_ -gradual changes as taking millions and millions of years to bring about evolution of one species into another
phyletic gradualism
_ (_)- sudden sharp branches in the evolutionary tree followed by long periods of stasis and no change
quantum evolution (punctuated evolution)
_ (_)-all organisms that share a unique, common ancestor
clade (linage)
phylogenetic systematics that places together organisms belonging to the same clade.
_ -dendrogram depicting the linage
_ - includes the ancestor and all descendants
monophyletic clade
A clade which includes members that are not derived through the result of common descent (ie birds and mammals)
polyphyletic clade
A clade that does not include all members that are derived from a common ancestor.
paraphyletic clade

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