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Foundations of Reading Terms and Concepts from Chaper 1-2


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What is Literacy
The ability to read and write and other requirements of that culture to be literate
What is Self-efficacy?
Beliefs a person has about his or her capabilities to learn or perform behaviors at designated levels. Capable at performing a particular task.
What is Metalinguistics?
Study of the interrelationship between language and other cultural behavior.
Who is Marie Clay?
One of the most distinguished reading researchers in the world. Reading Recovery program. Because of her, research has been done on emergent literacy
Phonemic Awareness?
the ability to recognize that words are made up of a discrete set of sounds (manipulate sounds is called phonemic awareness)
Four Ways to build Phonemic Awareness?
1. Tell Rhymes
2. ABC’s & read alphabet books
3. Alliteration
4. Give the ability to sound and blend their letters (slap, trap)
Conventions of print?
Things we take for granted for example how many paragraphs, sentences, reading left to right etc.
All the words we use to talk about reading and writing (word, letter, sentence, and sound). Dr. learns the jargon of medicine. Child learns the jargon of reading.
Unit of sound that can distinguish sound. Sound that a letter makes. Grapheme is the actual letter. Knife has 3 phonemes and 5 graphemes.
Shared Reading?
When teacher reads a book to students. Anytime you hold a book in front of a group it’s called shared reading.
Predictable books?
Such that there is a pattern in the book and eventually everyone is reading along with you.
Pretend Reading?
Sometimes memorized because the book is a favorite or child makes up the story “pretend.” Example: Brown Bear……You read this book to the class and then the class catches on and can tell the story by mimicking you.
Print Rich classroom?
Classroom that is full of print (boarders, signs, books, names on the desk, writing work, art work, piles of different print work in the room, computers, white boards for writing, magazines.
Emergent literacy?
Starts prior to the child being born (mothers voice). Then when the baby is born, parents talk to the baby and hear other voices around them. As they grow, they notice people reading or writing and/or are read stories. What parents take the responsibility for. Very unbalanced levels coming into the classroom as emergent literacy happens prior to school.
Book examples:
Brown Bear
Alphabet mystery
Concrete words?
“important to them” words. Words that most children can recognize by cite. (Their name, Mom, Dad)
6 (book lists 8) thinking processes:
Self monitor
What does a “balanced literacy” program mean? And what are the components of a balanced literacy program?
An eclectic approach to teaching. A little of everything:
⬢ Phonics
⬢ Trade books
⬢ Guided/Independent reading
⬢ Independent/guided writing
⬢ Little bit of the basil reader
⬢ Group, pair and individual instruction
What is the definition of a “Whole Language” program?
The opposite effect of phonics approach. Whole language means we are looking at the whole word not just each individual letter or sound. Phonics is taught from part to whole. They don’t use basil readers, they use trade books and literature.
What do we mean by “Skills Emphasis” instruction?
Word analysis or decoding. Skills: teaching to an systematic (starting with easiest and going to the hardest), direct/explicit (starting with vowels, then ar, or then take out w.s. that is a direct instruction approach).
Why do we say “feeling is the energizer for reading?”
We want to motivate them and we can do that by the feelings we show about what ever we are doing. If we are excited to read, they will be excited. And if they do not feel successful at reading, they won’t want to read.
Feeling determine how we will respond to various situations. So if a student doesn’t feel what they are reading, they won’t be motivated to read it.
5 systems of language:
1. sound – phonology
2. meaning – semantics (vocabulary)
3. word order – syntax
4. grammar – morphology
5. social uses – pragmatics
7 crucial understandings about print - chapter 2
Children who have had many print experiences
⬢ know why we read and write
⬢ have greater knowledge stores to make sense of the information they read
⬢ understand the conventions and jargon of print
⬢ have higher levels of phonemic awareness
⬢ can read some important-to-them words
⬢ know some letter names and sounds
⬢ are eager and confident in their fledgling reading and writing attempts.

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