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Basic Genetics


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DNA stands for _______ and is named after the ______ it contains.
deoxyribonucleic acid, sugar
DNA is composed of _______.
a polymer formed from long chains of nucleotides
DNA is made different from each other by the ______.
Nitrogen-containing base (N-base)
Which letters match up correctly with each other?
A with T and C with G - DNA
A with U and C with G - RNA
Discoverers of DNA structure
Watson and Crick (1953)
DNA replication occurs during what process?
S-phase of mitosis
During DNA replication the DNA helicase does what?
seperates the double helix
During DNA replication the DNA polymerase does what?
connects the strands back together
During DNA replication the ligase does what?
seals fragments of the lagging strands back together
The differences of DNA and RNA are _____.
RNA has ribose sugar instead of deoxyribose
RNA is usually single stranded instead of double stranded
RNA has U in place of T
The similarities between DNA and RNA are ____.
They contain the bases A, G, C
The three types of RNA are ______.
mRNA (messenger)
tRNA (transfer)
Where and when does transcription take place?
from DNA to RNA, in the nucleus
What are introns?
Sequences in the DNA that don't code for the protein - they are cut out during RNA processing
What is the end product of RNA processing?
a mature mRNA transcript without any introns
What is the start codon?
AUG - engages a ribosome to start translating an mRNA molecule
What is the stop codon?
UAA, UAG, UGA - causes the ribosome to stop translating into an mRNA
What is an anti-codon?
a region of tRNA consisting of three bases complementary to the codon of mRNA
What does mRNA do?
acts as a messenger from DNA and ribosome carrying the info from a singe gene to be transfered into a protein
What does tRNA do?
binds to a certain amino acid, one end has anticodon which binds to a complimentary codon

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