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HD 201: prenatal - 8 EXAM 1 notecards


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evolutionary perspective
over time, minds and behaviors changed (evolved)
how have the most adaptive characteristics of 'evolutionary perspective' been retained?
-natural selection or "survival of the fittest"
-those with most adaptice characteristics are favored mates and pass on genetic material
what are the genetic foundations of development?
-Genetic Process
-Genetic Principles
-Chromosome and Gene-linked Abnormalities
genetic process
the process of sharing genetic information with offspring through reproduction

-cell nucleus houses DNA
definition of DNA
long, double stranded molecules that make up chromosomes (double helix)
definition of gene
segment of DNA, contains hereditary information
how do the genes get passed on?
definition of mitosis
the process of cell duplication, in which each new cell recieves an exact copy of the original chromosomes
when mitosis?
growth, repair
sex cells
-have half the chromosomes than other cells do
-23rd chromosome
-sperm - male sex cells
-ovum - female sex cells
definition of meiosis
cell division through which gametes are formed
definition of zygote
new cell with 46 chromosomes - formed when ovum and sperm unit
sources of variability
-not exact copies of parents or siblings
-in meiosis, crossing over happens, mixing up mom and dad's genetic info
-each member of chromosome pair carries different versions of gene pair
definition of genotype
genetic make up of the individual
*does not translate exactly to phenotype*
defintion of phenotype
outward expression of the genotype

*what you look like*
genetic principles
-dominant-recessice genes
dominant-recessive genes
-if one gene dominant, other recessive, dominant exerrts influence
-recessive gene only exerts influence when two recessive genes are paired
-examples in notes (1/25)
-X-linked inheritance - muttion carried on X-chromosome
-males have no backup X-will have disease
-female with another X (not likely to be affected) will NOT have disease
-examples in notes (1/25)
if we identified all the genes that effect a behavior could we predict that behavior?

ex introversion-extroversion
NO, b/c environment influences the way the gene is expressed
definition of range of reaction
range of possible phenotypes for each genotype-dependent on environment
range of reaction
-nature sets range
-nurture (or environment) determines exactly what is observed
examples of range of reaction
-nutritional availability determines exact weight
heredity-environmental correlation
-3 ways environment and heredity correlate
-passive gene-environment correlation
-evocative gene-environment correlation
-active gene-environment correlation
passive gene-environment correlation
-parents providing btohe gene and environment
evocative gene-environment correlation
outside of family system
-example: childcare
active gene-environment correlation
when you choose a particular environment because of gene
heredity-environmental correlation
-sandra scarr
-genes drive our experience/environment
-different level influences different age
shared and non-shared experiences
may explain sibling differences
non-shared experience example
age difference
parents get more leniant

children different
prenatal development
3 stages
-period of zygote
-period of embryo
-period of fetus
definition of period of zygote
union of sperm and egg at conception
period of zygote
-lasts about 2 weeks
-from fertilization until implantation
-30% of zygotes don't survive first 2 weeks
-4th day
-60-70 cells from a hollow, fluid-filled ball
-part of the period of zygote
inside cells of blastocyst
-embryonic disk
-becomes new organism
outer cells of blastocyst
-part of the period of zygote
-proctective covering
-attatchment of the blastocyst to the uterine lining
-occurs 7-9 days after fertilization
-part of the period of zygote
definition of chorion
-outer membrane (surrounds amnion)
-sends out villi (blood vessels) which burrow into the uterine wall and from which the placenta will emerge
-part of implantation
definition of amnion
-inner membrane
-froms a protective covereing
-part of implantation
definition of amniotic fluid
-fluid that fills the amnion
-keeps temperature constant and provides a cushion against jolts
-part of implantation
definition of placenta
-separates mother's blood stream from the embryo
-permits exchange of nutrients and waste
-part of the period of zygote
defintion of umbilical cord
-cord (1-3 ft)
-connects prenatal organism to the placenta
-part of the period of zygote
definition of yolk sac
-produces blood cells
-works until liver, spleen, and bone marrow sufficient
-part of the period of zygote
period of embryo
-foundation of all body structures and internal organs laid down during this period
-2-8 weeks after conception
week 3 (period of embryo)
embryonic disk folds over to form 3 layers
3 layers formed during week 3

-part of the period of embryo
definition of ectoderm
-outer layer
-nervous system and skin

-part of the period of embryo
definition of mesoderm
-middle layer
-muscles, skeleton, circulatory system, internal organs

-part of the period of embryo
definition of endoderm
-inner layer
digestive system, lungs, urinary tract, glands

-part of the period of embryo
week 3 & 4 of the period of embryo
*-ectoferm folds over to form a neural tube
-the primitive spinal cord, the top of which swells to form the brain

-neurons produced in neural tube
-heart pumps blood
-muscles, backbone, ribs, digestive tract appear
weeks 4 - 8 of the period of embryo
-eyes, ears, nose, jaw, neck form
-tiny buds become arms, legs, fingers and toes
-liver and spleen produce blood
8 weeks - period of embryo
-embryo is 1 inch long
-weighs one-seventh of an ounce
period of fetus
-week 9 to the end of pregnancy
-2nd and 3rd trimester
9 - 12 weeks ... period of fetus
-organs, muscles, nervous system become organized and connected
-by 12th week, genitals are well formed
-12th week is the end of 1st trimester
second trimester
-movements can be felt by mother
defintion of vernix
-white, cheeselike substance covering fetus
-during second trimester
definition of lanugo
-downy hair that covers the fetus
-part of the second trimester
end of second trimester
-all neurons formed
-2 - 3 pounds and 14 inches long
-if born, difficulty surviving
third trimester
-cerebral cortex enlarges
-fetus gains 5+ punds and grows about 7 inches
definition age of viability
-during third trimester
-age at which the fetus can first survive if bron early (22 - 26 weeks)
8th month ... third trimester
layer of fat added, antibodies recieved from mother
last weeks ... third trimester
most fetus turn upside - down
confirming pregnancy
pregnancy test checks for HCG (human chorionic gonadatropin)
2 types of pregnancy tests
-qualitative urine test
-quantitative blood test
example of qualitative urine test
home pregnancy test
example of quantitative blood test
doctor's office
calculating due date
-280 days on average (40 weeks)
-counted from last menstral cycle
-being "8 weeks pregnant" means fetus is 6 weeks old
maternal experience of first trimester
-may be physically ill
maternal experience of second trimester
often feels better
maternal experience of the third trimester
as pregnancy nears end, can become quite uncomfortable
weight gain
25-35 pounds related to best outcomes
-4 pounds 1st trimester
-then, 1 pund per week
- >2.2 pounds and < 6.6 pounds per month is concerning

more on break down of weight in notes (2/1)
when is heart pumping blood?
4 weeks
3 types of birth defects
-genetic disorders (chromosomal abnormalities)
-congenital infections (German measles)
-environmental insults (teratogens)
definitions of teratogen
any agent that causes birth defects
prescription and non prescription drugs (teratogens)
-chart on page 123
effect of thalidomide (teratogen)
limb malformation
effect of antibiotics (teratogen)
-bone growth , teeth discoloration
-depends on does and time of pregnancy and health factors
effect of caffeine (teratogen)
low birth weight
psychoactive drugs (teratogen)
-illegal drugs (heroin, cocaine)
effects of alcohol (teratogen)
-FAS (fedal alcohol syndrome)
effects of FAS
-mental retardation
-heart problems
-growth deficiency
-also physical characteristics
effects of nicotine (teratogen)
low birth weight
effects of illegal drugs (teratogen)
-low birth weight
-impaired motor development
-behavioral/attentional disorders
"main topics" of teratogens
-prescription and nonprescription drugs
-psychoactive drugs
-incompatibility of blood types
-environmental hazards
incompatibility of blood types
-mother Rh-, dad Rh+, fetus Rh+
-maternal antibodies attack fetus
-usually after 1st birth
treatments for incompatability of blood types (teratogen)
-vaccine (RhoGAM)
-blood transfusion for child
environmental hazards
-chemical pollutants
-PCB's - fish ingest, passed through food
-electomagnetic radiation from computer -
probably not
-hot tubs
other maternal factors of birth defects
-infectious disease
-emotional state
infectious disease
-rubella, syphilis, AIDS, toxoplasmosis
-jan 2005 - close to eradicationg infant AIDS
-protein, vitamins, minerals
-all with correct distribution
emotional state
can things fathers are exposed to lead to birth defects?
probably not, though more study is needed
-instead fertility more likely to be effected
-cancer treatment radiation
-lead, organic solvants, pesticides, radiation in work place--decrease sperm health
is this all an over emphasis on teratogens and other things?
-probably - low incidence
--most pregnancies go well
-but important to be aware of teratogens in order to avoid unnecessary exposure

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