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Mrs. Birmingham's History Chapter 12


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3 nations with weak economies and little territory that wanted to compete with the Soviets, France, Britain, and the U.S.
Germany, Italy, Japan
"living space" that Germany desired
Italian dictator who dreamed of turning the "Mediterranean Sea into an Italian Lake"
Benito Mussolini
Communist ruler who took power in 1926 and rebuilt the Soviet Union through violence
Portion of China controlled by Japan after the Russo-Japanese War
3 reasons that people feared Communism
1. Stalin was a violent symbol
2. Communism called for world revolution (which is bad)
3. Communist agents infiltrated the press, labor unions, and government agencies
4 reasons that the Japanese military attacked and captured Manchuria
1. It was rich in natural resrouces & fertile farmland
2. Japan's population was growing, but its land wasn't
3. Manchuria served as a buffer state between Korea and the Soviet Union (Japan controlled Korea)
4. China was in the middle of a Civil War anyway
American document that denied diplomatic recognition to any territory taken over by force (response to Japan's attack of Manchuria)
Stimson Doctrine
Dramatic, anti-Semitic ex-art student who joined the National Socialist German Workers' party and later became dictator of Germany
Adolf Hitler
German political party that evolved from the Nationalist Socialist GErman Workers' party
Nazi party
teacher of architecture and author of "Inside the Thirs Reich"
Albert Speer
CBS correspondent who documented much of the War from Europe
Edward Murrow
Hitler's plan to kill an entire ethnic group (specifically the Jews)
the hatred of Jewish people
Name for the German Empire that emerged after Hitler was appointed chancellor of Germany
Third Reich
Man who occupied the German presidency until Hitler dissolved the position in 1933
Paul von Hindenberg
German parliament that gave Hitler dictatorial power in 1933
Hitler's self-declared leadership title
Black American athlete who impressed Germany (and everyone else) with his four gold medals in the 1936 Berlin Olympics
Jesse Owens
Violent opening night of Hitler's anti-Jew campaign, during which Nazi gangs broke into homes, beat people, burned synagogues, and looted Jewish businesses (including hospitals and schools)
Military-free region along the Rhine River, a buffer zone between Germany and France, into which Hitler moved military forces in 1936
Hitler's proclaimed "union" of Germany and Austria
3 reasons that France and Britain ignored Hitler's early campaigns
1. They believed that the Versailles Treaty was unfair against Germany
2. They were more worried about the Soviets, and hoped Germany could lessen Stalin's power
3. They totally underestimated Hitler's "thirst for conquest"
term for the laid-back military attitudes of France and Britain towards Germany
independent country in northeast Africa that Benito Mussolini conquered without opposition
Ethiopian emperor who appealed to the League of Nations during Mussolini's attack and subsequently had to go into exile
Spanish general backed by the German-Italian alliance
Francisco Franco
Czech region full of protective fortresses desired by Germany
Czech ambassador to London
Jan Masaryk
Meeting for Britain, France, Germany and Italy at which Czechoslovakia was forced to surrender Sudetenland
Munich Pact
Brisith prime minister who attended the Munich Pact
Neville Chamberlain
future British prime minister who correctly predicted that it was not "the end of fear"; King George VI asked him to form a new government in 1940
Winston Churchill
Pact that announced the critical position of the Soviet Union in the Germany-Poland struggle
Nazi-Soviet Nonagression Pact
Date that Germany declared war on Poland
September 1, 1939
Nazu tank formations that quickly destroyed Poland
panzer divisions
name of the German air force
French fortifications along France's eastern border
Maginot Line
Seven months of "phony war" during which almost no fighting took place
2 Scandinavian countries that Hitler seized in 1940
Denmark & Norway
Undercover agents who created fear prior to the Scandinavian invasions
fifth columnists
Norwegian fascist fifth columnist
Vidkun Quisling
German war tactic combining speed and firepower of massed tanks with the precision-bombing of fighter planes: "lighting war"
Hilly Belgian region with insufficient French protection through which teh Germans attacked
Ardennes Forest
Location of Britain & France's retreat after the attack on the Ardennes Forest
British military branch that protected the Dunkirk evacuation by air and played a major part in the war
Royal Air Force
The names and locations of the 2 zones of divided France, and who controlled which
Occupied France (Northern France and the Atlantic coastline): Germany

Unoccupied France (the rest of the South): Marshal Petain
Head of the exiled "Free French" government in London
Charles de Gaulle
American journalist who wrote "before the snow flies again we may stand alone and isolated, the last great Democracy on earth."
Walter Lippmann
Which countries were fighting for whom?
(in 1940)
Germany, Italy, Soviet Union (conquered Poland, Denmark, Norway, the Netherlands, Belgium, France and I think Czechoslovakia)

Britain (with help from its Empire- Canada, Australia, New Zealand, India) and aid but not official support of the U.S.
Important German campaign against Britain from August to September in 1940
Battle of Britain
Britain's elusive fighter plane that threatened the Luftwaffe
American laws responding to the anti-war sentiments leftover from World War I
Neutrality Acts
Provisions of the Neutrality Acts
1. The transportation of weapons and other items of war to warring nations was banned
2. Other materials that could be used for war, such as oil, rubber, and steel were to be sold without credit and carried on ships of the purchasing nation
3. No warring nations could borrow money from the Unites States
4. American citizens were prohibited from traveling on vessels belonging to warring nations
Areas taken over by Germany in its Soviet invasion, and where the attack stopped
Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Leningrad, the Ukraine, Moscow (where it ended)
Roosevelt's Republican opponent in the 1940 presidential election
Wendell Willkie
Act signed by Roosevelt in 1941 that allowed Britain to place orders for American weapons; it was eventually extended to the Soviet Union
Lend-Lease Act
Roosevelt's statement of war aims that seemed to be the equivalent to Wilson's Fourteen Points, affirming the right of people to choose their own governments and to be free of foreign aggression
Atlantic Charter
American naval vessel sunk by a German sub in 1941 that provoked little response
Reuben James
A group formed in 1940 to oppose the war

(this is from the excerpt on page 530 of the textbook)
America First Committee
Isolationist who wrote the excerpt on page 530 of the textbook
Charles Lindbergh

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